USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4032

Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in Georgia, 2001

U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4032, 96 pages (Published 2003)

David C. Leeth, John S. Clarke, Steven D. Craigg, and Caryl J. Wipperfurth

Sections of this report is available online in pdf format (below).

ABSTRACT

Cover photo: Irrigation pivot near Brigham's Landing, Burke County, Georgia. Photograph by Donald R. Dowling, U.S. Geological Survey, January 2003The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia.

Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer.

Ground-water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer is monitored in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County; and monitored in the Lower Floridan aquifer in the Savannah and Brunswick areas. In the Albany area since 1998, nitrate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer have increased in 4 of the 11 wells monitored, and in 1 well, concentrations were above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) drinking-water standard. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration in water from four wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer showed no appreciable change during 2001, remaining within the USEPA 250 mg/L drinking-water standard; in seven wells completed in the Lower Floridan aquifer and in underlying zones, the chloride concentration remained above the drinking-water standard, with one well showing an increase over previous years.

In the Brunswick area, water samples from 66 wells completed in the Upper or Lower Floridan aquifers were collected during June 2001 and analyzed for chloride. A map showing chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during June 2001 indicates that concentrations remained above USEPA drinking-water standards across a 2-square-mile area. In the north Brunswick area, chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer continued to increase, whereas in the south Brunswick area, concentrations continued to decrease.

In the Camden County area, chloride concentrations in six wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer remained within drinking-water standards. With the exception of one well, concentrations remained the same and were below 40 mg/L. In one well, concentrations showed a sharp decline during 2001, but remained above 130 mg/L.

Ongoing studies during 2001 include evaluation of agricultural chemicals in shallow ground water in southwestern Georgia; evaluation of saltwater intrusion and water-level and water-quality monitoring in the city of Brunswick-Glynn County area; evaluation of ground-water flow, and water-quality and water-level monitoring in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area; evaluation of salt-water intrusion and alternative water sources as part of the Coastal Sound Science Initiative; assessment of the effects of impoundment of Lake Seminole on water resources in southwestern Georgia; assessment of stream-aquifer relations in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin; assessment of ground-water availability and supply at Fort Gordon near Augusta; and evaluation of the hydrogeology of fractured crystalline-rock aquifers in the city of Lawrenceville area and Rockdale County.

Technical highlights from selected USGS ground-water studies during 2001 include the characterization of fractured crystalline-rock aquifers at selected sites in the Lawrenceville area, the hydrogeology and aquifer tests in the Floridan aquifer system at selected sites in coastal Georgia, and the hydrogeology and ground-water quality of coastal plain sediments at Fort Gordon. Also a listing is presented of selected publications, technical presentations, and outreach activities during 2001.



CONTENTS

Abstract

Introduction (894 kb PDF file)

Purpose and scope

Methods of analysis, sources of data, and data accuracy

Georgia well-naming system

Cooperating organizations

Ground-water resources

References cited

Ground-water levels (177 kb PDF file)

Surficial aquifer (149 kb PDF file)

Upper and lower Brunswick aquifers (128 kb PDF file)

Upper Floridan aquifer (561 kb PDF file)

Southwestern area (114 kb PDF file)

City of Albany-Dougherty County area (167 kb PDF file)

South-central area (89 kb PDF file)

East-central area (83 kb PDF file)

Northern coastal area (97 kb PDF file)

Central coastal area (237 kb PDF file)

Southern coastal area (144 kb PDF file)

Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units in coastal Georgia (132 kb PDF file)

Claiborne and Gordon aquifers (95 kb PDF file)

Clayton aquifer (88 kb PDF file)

Cretaceous aquifer system (112 kb PDF file)

Paleozoic-rock aquifers (71 kb PDF file)

Crystalline-rock aquifers (180 kb PDF file)

Ground-water quality of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers (102 kb PDF file)

City of Albany area (423 kb PDF file)

City of Savannah area (191 kb PDF file)

City of Brunswick area (209 kb PDF file)

Camden County area (103 kb PDF file)

Selected ground-water studies in Georgia, 2001 (150 kb PDF file)

Agricultural chemicals in shallow ground water in southwestern Georgia (857 kb PDF file)

City of Albany cooperative water-resources program (901 kb PDF file)

City of Brunswick and Glynn County cooperative water-resources program (1,307 kb PDF file)

Coastal Sound Science Initiative (838 kb PDF file)

Effects of impoundment of Lake Seminole on water resources in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in parts of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia (732 kb PDF file)

Fort Gordon ground-water assessment (489 kb PDF file)

Geohydrology of the city of Lawrenceville area (1,006 kb PDF file)

Ground-water information and project support (1,316 kb PDF file)

Ground-water resources and hydrogeology of crystalline-rock aquifers in Rockdale County, north-central Georgia (2,054 kb PDF file)

Hydrogeologic assessment and simulation of stream-aquifer relations in the Lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (667 kb PDF file)

Technical highlights (115 kb PDF file)

Characterization of fractured crystalline-rock aquifers at selected sites in the vicinity of Lawrenceville, Georgia, 2001 by Lester J. Williams (1,028 kb PDF file)

Hydrogeology and aquifer tests in the Floridan aquifer system at selected sites, coastal Georgia, 2001 by L.G. Harrelson and W. Fred Falls (1,088 kb PDF file)

Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Coastal Plain sediments in the central Fort Gordon area, near Augusta, Georgia, 2001 by Sherlyn Priest (757 kb PDF file)

Selected ground-water publications, conferences, and outreach, 2001

Introduction

Georgia Water Resources Conference for 2001

Other conferences and outreach events for 2001

Selected USGS reports and conference proceedings articles published in 2001


REPORT AVAILABILITY

To view the PDF documents, you need the Adobe Acrobat® Reader installed on your computer. (a free copy of the Acrobat® Reader may be downloaded from Adobe Systems Incorporated.)


Recent USGS publications on Georgia or Georgia Water-Resources Information

For more information, please contact webmaster-ga@usgs.gov.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America home page. USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri034032/index.html
Page Contact Information: Publications Team
Page Last Modified: Wednesday, 07-Dec-2016 13:33:33 EST