USGS

National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

Design of the National Water-Quality
Assessment Program:

Occurrence and Distribution of Water-Quality Conditions

United States Geological Survey Circular 1112
By Robert J. Gilliom, William M. Alley, and Martin E. Gurtz

CONTENTS

Glossary and Study Components
Abstract
Introduction
Overview of Study-Unit Investigations
Purpose and Scope
Goals and Major Design Components of the
Occurrence and Distribution Assessment
Environmental Framework for Design
Surface-Water Study Design
Overview of Approach
Water-Column Synoptic Studies
Basic Fixed-Site Assessment
Site Selection
Sampling Strategy
Sampling Analyses
Intensive Fixed-Site Assessment
Site Selection
Sampling Strategy
Sample Analyses
Water-Column Studies
Bed-Sediment and Tissue Studies
Occurrence Survey
Site Selection
Sampling Strategy
Bed Sediment
Tissue
Sample Analyses
Spatial Distribution Survey
Site Selection
Sampling Strategy
Sample Analyses
Ecological Studies
Fixed-Site Reach Assessment
Site Selection
Sampling Strategy
Sample Analyses
Intensive Ecological Assessment
Ecological Synoptic Studies
Ground-Water Study Design
Overview of Approach
Study-Unit Survey
Subunit Definition and Prioritization
Well Selection and Sampling Strategy
Sample Analyses
Land-Use Studies
Selection of Land-Use Studies
Well-Selection Strategy
Sample Analyses
Flowpath Studies
Selection of Flowpath Study Sites
Transect Design and Sampling Strategy
References Cited


FIGURES

1. Map showing Study Units of the National Water-Quality Assessment. (46K GIF)
2. Diagram showing phased implementation of Study-Unit Investigations. (41K GIF)
3. Diagram showing components of Study-Unit Investigations and their interrelations. (16K GIF)
4. Diagram showing components of the Occurrence and Distribution Assessments. (52K GIF)
5. Diagram showing conceptual stratification of environmental settings for the White River Basin Study Unit, Indiana. (43K GIF)
6. Map showing environmental settings of the White River Basin Study Unit, Indiana. (85K GIF)
7. Map showing example of distribution of Basic and Intensive Fixed Sites for the White River Basin Study Unit, Indiana. (80K GIF)
8. Map showing example of study designs for a Study-Unit Survey and Land-Use Study, San Joaquin/Tulare Basins Study Unit. (103K GIF)
9. Map showing typical idealized transect design for a Flowpath Study associated with a gaining stream. (28K GIF)

TABLES

1. General goals of the Occurrence and Distribution Assessment. (64K GIF)
2. Relations among measurable water-quality characteristics and selected water-quality issues. (45K GIF)
3. Water-quality characteristics measured in National Water-Quality Assessment surface-water components. (40K GIF)
4. Sampling activities for characterizing streamwater-quality conditions for the Occurrence and Distribution Assessment. (63K GIF)
5. Summary of fixed-site design for the White River Basin Study Unit, Indiana. (37K GIF)
6. Analytical strategy for Basic Fixed Sites. (24K GIF)
7. Analytical strategy for Intensive Fixed Sites in addition to the Basic Fixed-Site analyses. (45K GIF)
8. National Target Taxa List for tissue bioassessment in the National Water-Quality Assessment. (39K GIF)
9. Analytical strategy for bed-sediment and tissue Occurrence Survey. (87K GIF)
10. Components and attributes of the National Water-Quality Assessment ground-water sampling design. (53K GIF)

CONVERSION FACTORS

Multiply By To obtain
centimeter (cm) 0.3937 inch (in.)
meter (m) 3.281 foot (ft)
kilometer (km) 0.6214 mile (mi)
square kilometer (km2) 0.3861 square mile (mi)


Continue to Abstract, or Glossary of Study Components


U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Persistent URL: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/cir1112
Page Contact Information: GS Pubs Web Contact
Last modified: Friday, January 11 2013, 12:04:00 PM
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