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Circular 1196

Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States

Edited by Scott F. Sibley

Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (10.4 MB)Foreword

As world population increases and the world economy expands, so does the demand for natural resources. An accurate assessment of the Nation’s mineral resources must include not only the resources available in the ground but also those that become available through recycling. Supplying this information to decisionmakers is an essential part of the USGS commitment to providing the science that society needs to meet natural resource and environmental challenges.

The U.S. Geological Survey is authorized by Congress to collect, analyze, and disseminate data on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals essential to the U.S. economy and national security. This information on mineral occurrence, production, use, and recycling helps policymakers manage resources wisely.

USGS Circular 1196, “Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States,” presents the results of flow studies for recycling 26 metal commodities, from aluminum to zinc. These metals are a key component of the U.S. economy. Overall, recycling accounts for more than 40 percent of the U.S. metal supply.

Marcia K. McNutt

Chapter links

Chapters A-M

Chapter A—Gold

Chapter B—Platinum

Chapter C—Chromium

Chapter D—Zinc

Chapter E—Magnesium

Chapter F—Lead

Chapter G—Iron and Steel

Chapter H—Manganese

Chapter I—Columbium (Niobium)

Chapter J—Tantalum

Chapter K—Tin

Chapter L—Molybdenum

Chapter M—Cobalt

Chapter N—Silver

Chapter O—Cadmium

Chapter P—Beryllium

Chapter Q—Antimony

Chapter R—Tungsten

Chapter S—Vanadium

Chapter T—Selenium

Chapter U—Mercury

Chapter V—Germanium

Chapter W—Aluminum

Chapter X—Copper

Chapter Y—Titanium

Chapter Z—Nickel

Chapter AA—Overview

First posted October 11, 2011

  • See chapter links at left

For additional information contact:
Scott F. Sibley
U.S. Geological Survey
989 National Center
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr.
Reston, VA 20192
Telephone: (703) 648-4976



Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF); the latest version of Adobe Reader or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge.

Suggested citation:

Sibley, S.F., ed., 2006–11, Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1196–A–Z–AA, the 27 chapters are separately paged and are available only at

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