Volcanoes of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands—Selected Photographs

By Christina Neal, Robert McGimsey, and Michael F. Diggles

Digital Data Series DDS-40
Version 1.1


U.S. Department of the Interior
Gale A. Norton, Secretary

U.S. Geological Survey
Charles G. Groat, Director

index map, Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian IslandsKanaga VolcanoSeguam IslandCarlisle VolcanoMount ClevelandMount VsevidofMount RecheshnoiOkmok CalderaBogoslof IslandMakushin VolcanoAkutan VolcanoMount GilbertWestdahl VolcanoFisher CalderaShishaldin VolcanoCold Bay VolcanoMount Dutton VolcanoEmmons Lake CalderaPavlof Sister and Pavlof VolcanoesVeniaminof VolcanoBlack PeakAniakchak CalderaYantarni VolcanoChiginagak VolcanoUgashik CalderaPeulik VolcanoUkinrek MaarsMount MartinMount MageikMount GriggsValley of Ten Thousand SmokesNovaruptaTrident VolcanoKatmai CalderaKaguyak Volcano
Mount Douglas
Kanaga VolcanoSeguam Island
Carlisle VolcanoMount ClevelandMount VsevidofMount Recheshnoi
Okmok Caldera
Bogoslof IslandMakushin VolcanoAkutan Volcano
Mount Gilbert
Westdahl Volcano
Fisher Caldera
Shishaldin VolcanoCold Bay VolcanoMount Dutton VolcanoEmmons Lake CalderaPavlof Sister and Pavlof VolcanoesVeniaminof Volcano
Black PeakAniakchak Caldera
Yantarni Volcano
Chiginagak VolcanoUgashik Caldera
Peulik VolcanoUkinrek Maars

Ukinrek Maars
Mount Martin
nt Martin
Mount Martin
Mount Martin
Mount Martin
Mount MageikMount GriggsValley ofValley of Ten Thousand Smokes
 Ten Thousand Smokes
Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes
NovaruptaTrident VolcanoKatmai CalderaKaguyak VolcanoMount Douglas
Map showing volcanoes represented in this collection and other place names referred to in captions.


This is the on-line version of a CD—ROM publication. It differs from the version published on the disc only in that it does not contain the search catalog, viewing software, nor autoplay files. This version consists of 485 MB whereas the disc version consists of 537 MB.


Alaska is home to more than 40 active volcanoes, many of which have erupted violently and repeatedly in the last 200 years. This CD—ROM contains 97 digitized color 35-mm images which represent a small fraction of thousands of photographs taken by Alaska Volcano Observatory scientists, other researchers, and private citizens. The photographs were selected to portray Alaska’s volcanoes, to document recent eruptive activity, and to illustrate the range of volcanic phenomena observed in Alaska.

These images are for use by the interested public, multimedia producers, desktop publishers, and the high-end printing industry. The digital images are stored in the “images” folder and can be read across Macintosh, Windows, DOS, OS/2, SGI, UNIX, and Linux platforms with applications that can read JPG (JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group format), TIF (TIFF – Tagged Image File Format), or PCD (Kodak’s PhotoCD (YCC) format) files. Throughout this publication, the image numbers match among the file names, figure captions, thumbnail labels, and other references. Also included on this CD—ROM are Adobe Acrobat PDF (Portable Document Format) files as well as Windows and Macintosh viewers and engines for keyword searches (Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search). At the time of this publication, Kodak’s policy on the distribution of color-management files is still unresolved, and so none is included on this CD—ROM. However, using the Universal Ektachrome or Universal Kodachrome transforms found in your software will provide excellent color. In addition to TIF and PhotoCD (PCD) files, this CD—ROM contains large (14.2”x19.5”) and small (4”x6”) screen-resolution (72 dots per inch; dpi) images in JPEG format. These undergo downsizing and compression relative to the TIF and PhotoCD images. Each of these resolutions is located in the following folders:

  • TIF format: /images/TIF/ (1.72 GB)
  • PhotoCD format (PCD’s): /images/PCD/
  • JPG files (landscape, 1024 pixels wide; portrait, 768 pixels high): /images/JPG/large_screen/
  • JPG files (landscape, 432 pixels wide; portrait, 432 pixels high): /images/JPG/small_screen/

    Feel free to use any of these images but please cite the photographer and the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Shortcut: Get the high resolution versions of these images: the TIF format files.


    This CD—ROM presents 97 photographs showing volcanic activity and features in the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. The images are presented in a variety of ways:

  • an “album” in Web-browser (HyperText Markup Language; HTML) format
  • a “book” in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format that contains text, figures, captions, references, and a glossary
  • a “slideshow” in PDF format available for two sizes of monitors
  • as individual images in folders containing TIF-format, Kodak PhotoCD (PCD) image-pac-format and JPG-format files


    The content within this publication is presented in several formats all but one of which are accessible to sight-disabled people. The slideshow files are image-only PDFs and therefore have no tags and are not accessible but these images are the same as those presented in the files “album.html” and “DDS-40.pdf”, both of which are fully accessible using assistive technology such as screen readers and comply with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act, Section 508.

    Album in Web-browser (HTML) Format

    An “album” is provided here as an HTML file. It consists of the 97 photographs with captions. Each image is first presented as a 4”x6” image. If you click on any 4”x6” image, it will bring up a larger version (14” wide or 10” high). Use your browser’s “Back” button to return to the album. The color “palate” contains 16.7 million colors.

    View the Web-browser album (album.html; 48 KB with links to 19.5 MB of image files)

    Presentations in Acrobat (PDF) Format

    To view PDF files on this CD—ROM, you will need Adobe Acrobat Reader which is provided in the “Acrobat” folder on the CD—ROM version of this publication for both Macintosh and Windows (version 5.0). Both users of the CD—ROM and online version of this publication can download the latest version or Acrobat Reader for free using the button below.

    Get Acrobat Reader

    Book in Acrobat (PDF) Format

    The “book” is provided here as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file (DDS-40.pdf). It is the same collection of photographs but each image is print-quality (3072x2048 pixels; 4”x6” 512 dpi) and it contains text, figures, captions, references, and a glossary.

    View the Acrobat book (DDS-40.pdf; 27 MB)

    Slideshow in Acrobat (PDF) Format

    A “slideshow” is provided in the “slideshow” folder as a pair of Adobe Acrobat PDF files, slideshow1024.pdf (7.6 MB) or slideshow1920.pdf (14.2 MB). The images in slideshow1024.pdf are 1024 pixels wide or 768 pixels high which is typical of what monitors up to 17" use. The images in slideshow1920.pdf are 1900 pixels wide or 1200 pixels high which is typical of what monitors up to 23" use. If you are using a smaller monitor, select the smaller file because it will load and display faster. To run either slideshow, you need to open it directly with Acrobat Reader rather than through this HTML front end with its browser “plugin.” To do this, quit (or minimize) this page, go directly to the CD—ROM, open the slideshow folder, and open the slideshow file of your choice.

    Go to the slideshow files and download the one of your choice by right-clicking (PC) or clicking-and-holding or dragging-and-dropping (Mac).

    Tip: To automate the slideshow, open Acrobat Reader, select Edit, Preferences, General, Full Screen... and check Advance Every 3 Seconds. Then open the slideshow. To exit the slideshow PDF file. To exit the slideshow at any time, hit the “Esc” button.

    (Old versions of Acrobat Reader such as 4.0 have the automate choice under File, Preferences, Full Screen).

    Individual Images

    The small-screen images (432 pixels in the long dimension) used in the HTML album, the large-screen images (landscape, 1024 pixels wide; portrait, 768 pixels high) used in both the HTML and PDF slideshow, and print-quality (3072x2048 pixels) images in TIF and PCD format and used in the PDF book are available individually using the links below.

    View the collection of small-screen images (images/JPG/small_screen; 1.7 MB total)
    View the collection of large-screen images (images/JPG/large_screen; 16.1 MB total)
    View the collection of TIF files; 6-megapixels (images/TIF; 1.72 GB total)
    View the collection of PCD files; 6-megapixels (images/PCD; 418 MB total)

    Kodak PhotoCD (PCD) Files: How to Use the Five Sizes

    For users who have commercial software that can read and print PCD files, the photographs are provided on this CD-ROM in that format in the “PCD” folder which is in the “images” folder.

    Each PCD file has five resolutions of images contained within each file. You can make a choice as to which one you want to use rather than needing to down-sample an image that is larger than you need. For example, when you open a PCD file in Adobe Photoshop, you get a dialog box where you select the resolution of your choice and then that version of the image opens.

    You can also use the largest of the choices, for instance, to make a poster-sized hard copy on a large plotter. Do this by opening a PCD in high-resolution mode (3072 x 2048 pixels) and setting the image size to 90 dpi and you will get a picture that is nearly two-feet by three-feet.

    In the hierarchy of file formats, PhotoCD (YCC) resides above BMP, EPS, GIF, JPEG, MOV, PCX, PICT, PSD, TIF, TIFF, etc., enabling end users to go from YCC to other formats, but not in the other direction without losing image quality. Each 24-bit color image is stored as 5 resolutions:

    1. Thumbnail [192 x 128 pixels]—Contact-sheet-size images for quick previewing of the entire collection.

    2. FPO “For Placement Only” [384 x 256 pixels]—A proxy for high-resolution images to determine placement in page-layout programs.

    3. Screen Resolution [786 x 512 pixels]—Ideal for computer viewing and multimedia projects.

    4. HDTV High-Definition Television [1536 x 1024 pixels]—Sufficient resolution for high definition TV, newspapers, and high-quality half-page layouts.

    5. High Resolution [3072 x 2048 pixels]—Provides the printing industry with resolution sufficient for high-quality full-page layouts at 300 dpi/150 lpi and 24-bit color.


    The captions for each image, besides being included in the HTML front end and the PDF file, are provided in ASCII format in the captions.txt file.

    View the Captions file for this CD—ROM (captions.txt; 44 KB)

    Information About this Publication

    Color scanning was done on a Kodak(3) PIW scanner. The resulting PCD files were edited in Adobe Photoshop 6.0 for Macintosh and converted JPG files. They were also converted to TIF format with Lemke Software's GraphicConverter v4.4. The small-screen images were made with JPG compression set to 3; the large-screen images were made with JPG compression set to 9. The “book” PDF file was constructed using Adobe PageMaker 7.0 page-layout software for Macintosh. The PDF’s were tagged using the Make Accessible plug-in for Adobe Acrobat 5.0 for Windows after which the alternative text was hand tagged. The master for the CD—ROM was made on a LaCie CDBP-16104A CD—ROM recorder using Roxio Toast Titanium 5.0.1 software for Macintosh set at ISO-9660 Level II CD—ROM format with Macintosh names (compatible with Windows) and Apple Extensions.


    Compiling a set of images from the AVO collection onto CD—ROM was first proposed by Joe Dorava. The authors have benefited greatly from the technical assistance, tenacity, and enthusiasm of John Nakata and Evelyn Newman. Reviews of caption text by Chris Nye, John Nakata, Jim Smith, and Lee Siebert improved their content. Map figure was generated by Anne Vanderpool and Kathy Lemke. Bernadette Johnson painstakingly labeled several sets of duplicate 35-mm slides. Mark Lohnes ably scanned the images. John Nakata provided the summary on Kodak PCD image-pac format and suggested the thumbnail collection on the inside front cover of the CD-ROM "jewel" case. Mary Jane Coombs suggested the map figure's hyperlink feature. Bobbie Myers designed the volcanoes banner. We thank all the photographers who shared their work with us.

    View the version history of this publication (version_history.txt; 4 KB).

    View the Readme file for this CD—ROM (1_README.TXT; 16 KB).

    This report is for sale on CD—ROM by:

    USGS Information Services
    Box 25286
    Denver Federal Center
    Denver, CO 80225
    Telephone: (888) ASK-USGS

    ISBN 0607-98402-3

    Current pricing information is available from http://mapping.usgs.gov/esic/prices/.

    Email content questions about this publication to the senior author, Christina Neal (tneal@usgs.gov), U.S. Geological Survey.
    Email technical questions about this publication to Michael F. Diggles (mdiggles@usgs.gov), U.S. Geological Survey.

    | U.S. Department of the Interior | Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Accessibility |
    URL of this page: https://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-40/
    Maintained by: Michael Diggles
    Created: 26 July 2001
    Last modified: July 2, 2009 (mfd)