Vertical-Deformation, Water-Level, Microgravity, Geodetic, Water-Chemistry, and Flow-Rate Data Collected During Injection, Storage, and Recovery Tests at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, September 1995 through September 1998

By Loren F. Metzger, Marti E. Ikehara, and James F. Howle



Open-File Report 01-414

Sacramento, California 2001

Prepared in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and
the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency

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Cover (456 KB PDF)
Pages 1–29 of report) (876 KB PDF)
Pages 30–50 of report (768 KB PDF)
Pages 51–85 of report (1 MB PDF)
Table 9 (2.6 MB PDF)
Table 10 (228 KB PDF)
Table 11 (2.2 MB PDF)
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A series of freshwater injection, storage, and recovery tests were conducted from September 1995 through September 1998 to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of the Antelope Valley, California. The tests used two production wells at a well field located in the southern part of the city of Lancaster. Monitoring networks were established at or in the vicinity of the test site to measure vertical deformation of the aquifer system, water-level fluctuations, land-surface deformation, water chemistry, and injection well flow rates during water injection and recovery. Data presented in this report were collected from a dual extensometer; 10 piezometers; 1 barometer; 27 active or abandoned production wells; 31 gravity stations; 124 bench marks; 1 permanent and 1 temporary continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) station; 3 tiltmeters; and 2 electromagnetic flowmeters from September 1995 through September 1998. This report discusses the location and design of the monitoring networks and the methods used to collect and process the data, and presents the data in tables and graphs.


Table of Contents



Description of Study Area


Injection Site and Test Design

Vertical Deformation Monitoring

Dual-Extensometer Construction

Dual-Extensometer Instrumentation

Data Collection and Processing

Ground-Water-Level Monitoring

Construction of Nested Piezometers

Continuous Water-Level Measurements


Data Collection and Processing

Periodic Water-Level Measurements

Microgravity Surveys

Gravity Station Construction

Gravity Data Collection

Geodetic Monitoring

Differential-Leveling Network

Bench-Mark Installation

Differential-Leveling Surveys

Data Processing

Continuous GPS Surveying

GPS Station Construction and Instrumentation

Data Collection and Processing

Tiltmeter Network


Data Collection and Processing

Water-Chemistry Monitoring

Sample Collection Methods

Analytical Methods

Flow-Rate Monitoring

Data Collection

Data Processing


References Cited

Appendix A. Discussion on Preparing for a Microgravity Survey

Appendix B. Discussion on Making a Microgravity Measurement

Appendix C. Discussion on Sources of Microgravity Survey Errors

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Water Resources of California

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