Open-File Report 2015–1051
The efficacy of a commercially prepared spray dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A) was evaluated for removing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) adhering to a population of unionid mussels in Lake Darling (Alexandria, Minnesota). Two groups of unionid mussels were used in the study. Unionid mussels were collected near the test area, weighed, photographed, individually tagged, and randomly allocated to one of nine test enclosures in equal proportions and then divided into two groups. The first group of unionid mussels (Group 1, n = 5 per test enclosure) were indiscriminately selected from each test enclosure and used to estimate the number of zebra mussels adhering to unionid mussels prior to exposure. The second group of unionid mussels (Group 2, n = 22 per test enclosure) were used to evaluate the efficacy of SDP for removal of adhering zebra mussels. Both Group 1 and Group 2 mussels were used to evaluate the effects of SDP exposure on unionid mussel survival.
Treatment was assigned to each test enclosure by using a randomized block design. The three treatment groups were tested in triplicate and included an untreated control group and groups that received a single application of 50 or 100 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of SDP based on active ingredient. All treatment concentrations are reported as active ingredient of SDP. Test enclosures were removed at the 8-hour exposure termination. Both Group 1 and Group 2 mussels remained in their assigned exposure location during the postexposure holding period. The number of zebra mussels adhering to Group 2 mussels (live and dead) was assessed 18 to 20 days postexposure in addition to assessing the survival of Group 1 and Group 2 unionid mussels.
SDP, administered as a single treatment, significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the number of adhering zebra mussels when compared to the untreated controls. The number of zebra mussels adhering to unionid mussels (Group 2) was reduced 53 percent in the 50-mg/L treatment group and 68 percent in the 100-mg/L treatment group. The number of adhering zebra mussels did not differ (p = 0.79) between the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups after exposure. When standardized to the amount of SDP applied per square meter, each gram (g) of SDP applied in the 50-mg/L treatment reduced the number of adhering zebra mussel 59.8 percent more than the 100-mg/L treatment group.
Group 1 mussel survival did not differ between treatment groups (p > 0.05); however, a difference was detected (p < 0.01) in the survival of Group 2 mussels. The survival of Group 2 mussels did not differ (p > 0.23) between control and treated groups. A difference in Group 2 mussel survival was detected (p = 0.03; odds ratio [OR] = 0.290) between the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups (that is, the survival was highest in the 50-mg/L treatment group and lowest in the 100-mg/L treatment group), however, the biological significance of the difference is indeterminate.
First posted April 1, 2015
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Luoma, J.A., Weber, K.L., Severson, T.J., and Mayer, D.A., 2015, Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to native unionid mussels within field enclosures: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1051, 301 p., https://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151051.
ISSN 2331-1258 (online)
Materials and Methods
Test Enclosure Area
Reduction of Adhering Zebra Mussels
Stock-Solution Preparation and Dosing
Appendix 1. Study Protocol With Data Forms
Appendix 2. Deviations From the Study Protocol
Appendix 3. Randomization Assignments
Appendix 4. Test Article Information
Appendix 5. Test Animal Information
Appendix 6. Water Quality
Appendix 7. Spectrophotometric Summary and SAS Output, Program, and Log
Appendix 8. Zebra Mussel Density Association Summary Data Analysis
Appendix 9. Unionid Mussel Survival Assessment Summary
Appendix 10. Statistical Analysis, Including SAS Programs, Outputs, and Logs for Unionid Mussel Survival, Zebra Mussel Colonization Density Associations, and Zebra Mussel Test Animal Lengths