Skip Links

USGS - science for a changing world

Open-File Report 2015–1066

Exposure-Related Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) on Juvenile Unionid Mussels

By Kerry L. Weber, James A. Luoma, Denise A. Mayer, Doug B. Aloisi, and Nathan L. Eckert

Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (15.8 MB)Abstract

The exposure-related effects of a commercially prepared spray-dried powder (SDP) or freeze-dried powder (FDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A) on the survival of seven species of newly metamorphosed (<72 hours old) freshwater unionid mussels was evaluated. Forty unionid mussels of each species were randomly distributed to test chambers and each species independently exposed for 24 hours to a static dose of either SDP (four species: Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Lampsilis higginsii, and Ligumia recta) or FDP (three species: Obovaria olivaria, Actinonaias ligamentina, and Megalonaias nervosa).

Each test chamber was assigned to one of six treatment groups (n = four chambers per group) by using a randomized block design. The six treatment groups included (1) an untreated control group, (2) groups that received applications with nominal target active ingredient (AI) concentrations of 50, 100, 200, and 300 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and (3) a group that received an application with a nominal target AI concentration of 300 mg/L of heat-deactivated test article (300 HD). After a 24-hour exposure period, water inflow to the test chambers was restored, and the unionid mussels were maintained for an additional 7 days before they were assessed for survival.

Mean survival of four unionid mussels species exposed to SDP varied among species and treatment groups when compared to the untreated control groups. The results indicate that exposure to SDP-formulated P. fluorescens up to the maximum label concentration (100 mg/L AI) and up to three times the maximum label exposure duration (8 hours) is not likely to affect the survival of L. siliquoidea and L. higginsii. Low mean survival in the L. recta control group (25.0 percent) indicates that results for L. recta should be interpreted with caution. Mean survival of the L. cardium was significantly lower in all treated groups (14.4 to 40.6 percent) compared to the control group (68.8 percent). These results indicate that further investigation on the impact of SDP-formulated P. fluorescens on L. recta and L. cardium is warranted.

Mean survival of three unionid mussels species exposed to FDP was not significantly different in the 50-, 100-, and 200-mg/L AI treatment groups and the 300 mg/L heat-deactivated treatment groups when compared to the control groups. Mean survival of O. olivaria and M. nervosa was significantly lower in the 300-mg/L AI treated groups (38.1 and 48.1 percent, respectively) compared to the control groups (71.9 and 88.1 percent, respectively). The results indicate that exposure to FDP-formulated P. fluorescens up to the maximum label concentration (100 mg/L AI) and up to three times the maximum label exposure duration (8 hours) is not likely to affect the survival of O. olivaria, A. ligamentina, and M. nervosa.

First posted April 15, 2015

  • Open-File Report 2015-1050
    Companion Report - Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) Spray Dried Powder for Controlling Zebra Mussels Adhering to Test Substrates
  • Open-File Report 2015-1051
    Companion Report - Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A Spray Dried Powder for Controlling Zebra Mussels Adhering to Native Unionid Mussels Within Field Enclosures
  • Open-File Report 2015-1064
    Companion Report - Safety of Spray-Dried Powder Formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A Exposure to Subadult/Adult Unionid Mussels During Simulated Open-Water Treatments
  • Open-File Report 2015-1094
    Companion Report - Exposure-Related Effects of Formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A to Glochidia from Seven Unionid Mussel Species
  • Open-File Report 2015-1104
    Companion Report - Exposure-Related Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Strain CL145A, on Coldwater, Coolwater, and Warmwater Fish

For additional information, contact:
Director, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center
U.S. Geological Survey
2630 Fanta Reed Road
La Crosse, WI 54603
http://www.umesc.usgs.gov/

Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF). For best results viewing and printing PDF documents, it is recommended that you download the documents to your computer and open them with Adobe Reader. PDF documents opened from your browser may not display or print as intended. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge. More information about viewing, downloading, and printing report files can be found here.


Suggested citation:

Weber, K.L., Luoma, J.A., Mayer, D.A., Aloisi, D.B., and Eckert, N.L. 2015, Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) on juvenile unionid mussels: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1066, 663 p., https://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151066.

ISSN 2331–1258 (online)



Contents

Acknowledgments

Abstract

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Experimental Design

Data Analysis

Results

Conclusion

References Cited

Appendix 1. Study Protocol With Data Forms

Appendix 2. Deviations From the Study Protocol

Appendix 3. Randomization Assignments

Appendix 4. Test Article Information

Appendix 5. Test Animal Information

Appendix 6. Water Quality and System Conditions

Appendix 7. Animal Feed Information

Appendix 8. Juvenile Mussel Survival Summary and Statistical Analysis


Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1066/
Page Contact Information: Contact USGS
Page Last Modified: Wednesday, December 07, 2016, 09:41:23 PM