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Open-File Report 2015–1064

Safety of Spray-Dried Powder Formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A Exposure to Subadult/Adult Unionid Mussels During Simulated Open-Water Treatments

By James A. Luoma, Kerry L. Weber, Diane L. Waller, Jeremy K. Wise, Denise A. Mayer, and Douglas B. Aloisi

Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (7.20 MB)Abstract

The exposure effects of a commercially prepared spray dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A) on the survival of seven species of unionid mussels endemic to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins was evaluated in this study. The study exposures were completed within replicated 350-liter test tanks contained within a mobile bioassay laboratory sited on the shores of the Black River near La Crosse, Wisconsin. The test tanks were supplied with flowing, filtered river water which was interrupted during the exposure period.

Two groups of seven species of mussels were used in equal proportions in the study. The first group was exposed to SDP for 8 hours, and the second group was exposed to SDP for 24 hours. Individually tagged mussels were randomly allocated to test tanks until all test tanks contained 8 to 10 mussels of each species (dependent upon the number available for testing).

The experimental unit for the trial was the individual test tank, and treatment group was assigned using a randomized block design. The treatment groups for each exposure duration consisted of (1) an untreated control group, (2) a group that received an application of 50 milligrams SDP per liter (mg SDP/L), and (3) a group that received an application of 100 mg SDP/L. All mussel species and both exposure duration groups were exposed concurrently (that is, one-half of the mussels were removed after 8 hours of SDP exposure and the remaining mussels were removed after 24 hours of SDP exposure). All treatment concentrations are reported as active ingredient.

After exposure, the mussels were consolidated into wire mesh cages and placed in the Black River for a 27-28 day postexposure period, after which time survival of mussels was assessed. Of the 1,170 mussels tested in the study, 3 were confirmed dead and 5 were not recovered and treated as mortalities in the analysis. The effect and interactions of species, SDP exposure concentration, and SDP exposure duration were analyzed and did not affect mussel survival (p > 0.98). The results from this study indicate that SDP exposure at the maximum approved open-water concentration of 100 mg/L for up to 3 times the maximum approved open-water exposure duration of 8 hours (in other words for 24 hours of exposure) is unlikely to reduce survival of subadult or adult mussels.

First posted April 16, 2015

  • Open-File Report 2015-1050
    Companion Report - Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) Spray Dried Powder for Controlling Zebra Mussels Adhering to Test Substrates
  • Open-File Report 2015-1051
    Companion Report - Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A Spray Dried Powder for Controlling Zebra Mussels Adhering to Native Unionid Mussels Within Field Enclosures
  • Open-File Report 2015-1066
    Report Companion - Exposure-Related Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) on Juvenile Unionid Mussels
  • Open-File Report 2015-1094
    Companion Report - Exposure-Related Effects of Formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A to Glochidia from Seven Unionid Mussel Species
  • Open-File Report 2015-1104
    Companion Report - Exposure-Related Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Strain CL145A, on Coldwater, Coolwater, and Warmwater Fish

For additional information, contact:
Director, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center
U.S. Geological Survey
2630 Fanta Reed Road
La Crosse, WI 54603

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Suggested citation:

Luoma, J.A., Weber, K.L., Waller, D.L., Wise, J.K., Mayer, D.A., and Aloisi, D.B., 2015, Safety of spray-dried powder formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A exposure to subadult/adult unionid mussels during simulated open-water treatments: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1064, 248 p.,

ISSN 2331-1258 (online)





Materials and Methods



References Cited

Appendix 1. Study Protocol with Data Forms

Appendix 2. Deviations from the Study Protocol

Appendix 3. Randomization Assignments

Appendix 4. Test Article Information

Appendix 5. Test Animal Information

Appendix 6. Water Quality

Appendix 7. Spectrophotometric Summary, SAS Program, Output and Log

Appendix 8. Statistical Analysis including SAS Programs, Outputs and Logs for Survival and Treatment Concentration

Appendix 9. Survival Assessment Summary

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