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Professional Paper 1386–A

Chapter A-3 (Figures 1–14)

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Gallery contains 4 columns, so you may need to scroll to the right to see all images.


Figure 1.—Images acquired on 11 April 1962 from the Television Infrared Observing Satellite-4 (TIROS-4), taken from an altitude of about 700 km. Clouds and snow are
indistinguishable in parts of the image mosaic.

Figure 2.—Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of Glacier National Park, Montana, acquired on 14 March 1991, showing snow-covered mountains. Clouds obscure parts of
the lower part of the image and appear as white or pink, whereas snow cover (including
snow-and-ice-covered lakes) is blue and non-snow-covered, vegetated land is reddish
orange. Landsat 5 TM false-color composite image 2569–17454, Path 69, Row 17, from
USGS EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, S. Dakota.

Figure 3.—A 500-m-pixel-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image of New Zealand’s South Island, acquired on 11 July 2003. The intense 
storm that produced this snow cover was reported to be the
worst blizzard to hit the country in 50 years. Image courtesy of NASA’s MODIS Land Rapid Response Team.

Figure 4.—A, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service(NOAA NESDIS) snow map. 1–7 March 1976;
B, NOAA NESDIS Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) snow map,
23 January 2006. Snow cover is shown in white; sea and lake ice is shown in dark blue.

Figure 5.—A, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image [bands 1 (620–670 nm), 4 (545–565 nm), and 3(459–479 nm)] and B, MODIS
snow map acquired on 31 October 2004. The area shown is in the western United
States, including the Sierra Nevada in California.

Figure 6.—Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) monthly snow
map with fractional snow cover for February 2004. From MODIS Snow and Ice Project,
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. []

Figure 7.—Global snow-cover classification according to bioclimatological regions (Sturm and others, 1995). Image courtesy of National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado.

Figure 8.—Passive-microwave-derived monthly mean snow map of South America for July 1991, based on the Chang and others (1987) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager
(SSM/I) algorithm. Snow-water equivalent is shown on the maps in various shades of
grey from 0 to 150 mm. Map courtesy of James L. Foster, NASA/Goddard Space 
Flight Center.

Figure 9.—Map of snow-water equivalent of the Canadian Prairies for 5 February 2002
derived from passive-microwave data. Map courtesy of Environment Canada.

Figure 10.—Rutgers University Global Snow Lab monthly snow map for February 2006, based on NOAA/NESDIS snow maps, showing snow-cover frequency.

Figure 11.—Rutgers University Global Snow Lab Northern Hemisphere snow-cover
anomalies: November 1966–August 2009.

Figure 12.—Rutgers University Global Snow Lab monthly snow map for February 2002, based on NOAA/NESDIS snow maps, showing snow-cover departure from normal.

Figure 13.—Rutgers University Global Snow Lab monthly snow map for October 2002, based on NOAA/NESDIS snow maps, showing snow-cover departure from normal.

Figure 14.—Glacier ice and snow on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, Africa, a 5,895-m high volcano. The image was acquired on 17 February 1993, by the Thematic Mapper
on the Landsat-5 satellite and was draped over a digital elevation model to give an
enhanced sense of the three-dimensional shape of the mountain. Image courtesy of
NASA’s MODIS Land Rapid Response Team.

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