Geologic Energy Storage

Fact Sheet 2022-3082
Energy Resources Program
By: , and 



As the United States transitions away from fossil fuels, its economy will rely on more renewable energy. Because current renewable energy sources sometimes produce variable power supplies, it is important to store energy for use when power supply drops below power demand. Battery storage is one method to store power. However, geologic (underground) energy storage may be able to retain vastly greater quantities of energy over much longer durations compared to typical battery storage. Geologic energy storage also has high flexibility; many different types of materials can be used to store chemical, thermal, or mechanical energy in a variety of underground settings. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the capability to research and assess possible domestic geologic energy storage resources to help prepare the United States for the future of renewable energy.

Suggested Citation

Buursink, M.L., Anderson, S.T., Brennan, S.T., Burns, E.R., Freeman, P.A., Gallotti, J.S., Lohr, C.D., Merrill, M. D., Morrissey, E.A., Plampin, M.R., and Warwick, P.D., 2023, Geologic energy storage: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2022–3082, 4 p.,

ISSN: 2327-6932 (online)

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • What is Geologic Energy Storage?
  • Can Geologic Energy Storage Help with the Energy Transition?
  • May Hydrogen be Stored Underground?
  • How Can the U.S. Geological Survey Help with Energy Storage Research?
  • References Cited
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title Geologic energy storage
Series title Fact Sheet
Series number 2022-3082
DOI 10.3133/fs20223082
Year Published 2023
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Geology, Energy & Minerals Science Center
Description 4 p.
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details