ECCOE Landsat Quarterly Calibration and Validation Report—Quarter 4, 2023

Open-File Report 2024-1026
By: , and 


Executive Summary

The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) Center of Excellence (ECCOE) focuses on improving the accuracy, precision, calibration, and product quality of remote-sensing data, leveraging years of multiscale optical system geometric and radiometric calibration and characterization experience. The ECCOE Landsat Cal/Val Team continually monitors the geometric and radiometric performance of active Landsat missions and makes calibration adjustments, as needed, to maintain data quality at the highest level.

This report provides observed geometric and radiometric analysis results for Landsats 7, 8, and 9 for quarter 4 (October–December) of 2023. All data used to compile the Cal/Val analysis results presented in this report are freely available from the U.S. Geological Survey EarthExplorer website:

This is the second quarterly report to include analysis results for Landsat 9, which was launched in September 2021. The inclusion of Landsat 9 analysis results was dependent on two factors: a complete reprocessing of the Landsat 9 data archive and enough time elapsing to begin formulating lifetime trends. In April 2023, all Landsat 9 image data acquired since the satellite’s launch were reprocessed to take advantage of calibration updates identified by the ECCOE Landsat Cal/Val Team. Additional information about the Landsat 9 reprocessing effort is available at Additional information about Landsat 9 prelaunch, commissioning, and early on-orbit imaging performance is available at

Suggested Citation

Haque, M.O., Rengarajan, R., Lubke, M., Hasan, M.N., Shrestha, A., Shaw, J.L., Denevan, A., Ruslander, K., Micijevic, E., Choate, M.J., Anderson, C., Thome, K., Barsi, J., Kaita, E., Levy, R., Miller, J., and Ding, L., 2024, ECCOE Landsat quarterly Calibration and Validation report—Quarter 4, 2023: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2024–1026, 62 p.,

ISSN: 2331-1258 (online)

Table of Contents

  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • Landsat 9 Radiometric Performance Summary
  • Landsat 9 Geometric Performance Summary
  • Landsat 8 Radiometric Performance Summary
  • Landsat 8 Geometric Performance Summary
  • Landsat 7 Radiometric Performance Summary
  • Landsat 7 Geometric Performance Summary
  • Quarterly Level 2 Validation Results
  • Summary
  • References Cited
Publication type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Title ECCOE Landsat quarterly Calibration and Validation report—Quarter 4, 2023
Series title Open-File Report
Series number 2024-1026
DOI 10.3133/ofr20241026
Year Published 2024
Language English
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location Reston, VA
Contributing office(s) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center
Description Report: ix, 62 p.; Dataset
Online Only (Y/N) Y
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details