Biodegradation of Chlorinated Ethenes at a Karst Site in Middle Tennessee

Table 1. Terminal electron acceptors and byproducts involved in microbial processes

Electron acceptor 1


Microbial process

Oxygen (O2)


Aerobic respiration

Nitrate (NO3-)

Ammonia (NH3)

NO3- reduction

Manganese (Mn4+)

Manganese (Mn2+)

Mn4+ reduction

Iron (Fe3+)

Iron (Fe2+)

Fe3+ reduction

Sulfate (SO42-)

Sulfide (S2-)

SO42- reduction

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Methane (CH4)


1.The electron acceptors are arranged from most energy efficient at the top to least efficient.

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