USGS

Ground Water and Surface Water A Single Resource

By T.C. Winter, J.W. Harvey, O.L. Franke, and W.M. Alley

To go directly to the pdf files that are available.

As the Nation's concerns over water resources and the environment increase, the importance of considering ground water and surface water as a single resource has become increasingly evident. Issues related to water supply, water quality, and degradation of aquatic environments are reported on frequently. The interaction of ground water and surface water has been shown to be a significant concern in many of these issues. For example, contaminated aquifers that discharge to streams can result in long-term contamination of surface water; conversely, streams can be a major source of contamination to aquifers. Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to ground water, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure and commonly have been ignored in water-management considerations and policies. Many natural processes and human activities affect the interactions of ground water and surface water. The purpose of this report is to present our current understanding of these processes and activities as well as limitations in our knowledge and ability to characterize them.

Contents

Title Page

Back of Title Page--(pdf 126KB)

Foreword

Preface

Introduction

Natural processes of ground-water and surface-water interaction 

The hydrologic cycle and interactions of ground water and surface water 

Interaction of ground water and streams 

Interaction of ground water and lakes 

Interaction of ground water and wetlands 

Chemical interactions of ground water and surface water 

Evolution of water chemistry in drainage basins 

Chemical interactions of ground water and surface water in streams, lakes, and wetlands 

Interaction of ground water and surface water in different landscapes 

Mountainous terrain 

Riverine terrain 

Coastal terrain 

Glacial and dune terrain 

Karst terrain 

Effects of human activities on the interaction of ground water and surface water 

Agricultural development 

Irrigation systems 

Use of agricultural chemicals 

Urban and industrial development 

Drainage of the land surface 

Modifications to river valleys 

Construction of levees 

Construction of reservoirs 

Removal of natural vegetation 

Modifications to the atmosphere 

Atmospheric deposition 

Global warming 

Challenges and opportunities 

Water supply 

Water quality 

Characteristics of aquatic environments 

Acknowledgments 


BOXES

Box A--

Concepts of ground water, water table, and flow systems
Box B-- The ground-water component of streamflow
Box C-- The effect of ground-water withdrawals on surface water
Box D-- Some common types of biogeochemical reactions affecting transport of chemicals in ground-water and surface water
Box E-- Evolution of ground-water chemistry from recharge to discharge areas in the Atlantic Coastal Plain
Box F-- The interface between ground water and surface water as an environmental enentity
Box G-- Use of environmental tracers to determine the interaction of ground water and surface water
Box H-- Field studies of mountainous terrain
Box I-- Field studies of riverine terrain
Box J-- Field studies of coastal terrain
Box K-- Field studies of glacial and dune terrain
Box L-- Field studies of karst terrain
Box M-- Point and nonpoint sources of contaminants
Box N-- Effects of irrigation development on the interaction of ground water and surface water
Box O-- Effects of nitrogen use on the quality of ground water and surface water
Box P-- Effects of pesticide application to agricultural lands on the quality of ground water and surface water
Box Q-- Effects of surface-water reservoirs on the interaction of ground water and surface water
Box R-- Effects of the removal of flood-plain vegetation on the interaction of ground water and surface water
Box S-- Effects of atmospheric deposition on the quality of ground water and surface water


The text and graphics are presented here in pdf format:

The full report (minus photographs) is 11 MB

Or for easier downloading we have split up the file:

Title page, Back of Title page, Foreword, Preface, Introduction--1 MB

The hydrologic cycle and interaction of ground water and surface water and chemical interactions of ground water and surface water--5 MB

Interaction of ground water and surface water in different landscapes--1.6 MB

Effects of human activities on the interaction of ground water and surface water--3 MB

Challanges and opportunities and Acknowledgments--82 KB


If you have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on your computer, you may view and/or print the PDF version of this report. If you do not have Acrobat Reader, you may download it here.



U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Persistent URL: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/cir1139
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Last modified: Friday, January 11 2013, 12:06:06 PM
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