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Open-File Report 2012—1263

Prepared under a mission assignment with the Federal Emergency Management Agency

Monitoring Storm Tide and Flooding from Hurricane Isaac along the Gulf Coast of the United States, August 2012

By Brian E. McCallum, Benton D. McGee, Dustin R. Kimbrow, Michael S. Runner, Jaime A. Painter, Eric R. Frantz, and Anthony J. Gotvald

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network of water-level and barometric pressure sensors at 127 locations along the gulf coast from Alabama to Louisiana to record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of hurricane storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Isaac. This deployment was undertaken as part of a coordinated federal emergency response as outlined by the Stafford Act under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Storm tide, as defined by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2008), is the water-level rise generated by a combination of storm surge and astronomical tide during a coastal storm.

Hurricane Isaac initially made landfall on the coast of Louisiana in Plaquemines Parish on August 28, 2012, as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (National Weather Service, 1974) and then stalled over southern Louisiana for several days, causing prolonged storm-tide impacts. A total of 188 water-level and wave-height sensors were deployed at 127 locations during August 27–28 prior to landfall. More than 90 percent of the sensors and all high-water marks (HWMs) were recovered and surveyed to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) within 7 days of the Isaac landfall. Only a handful of sensors in the Plaquemines Parish area of Louisiana could not be retrieved until weeks later due to prolonged flooding in the area. Data collected from this event can be used to evaluate the performance of storm-tide models for maximum and incremental water level and flood extent and the site-specific effects of storm tide on natural and anthropogenic features of the environment.

Open the Internet mapping site to view map showing sensor site locations and view data and charts.

Map showing sensor site locations.


Table 1. Number of sites equipped to monitor Hurricane Isaac storm tide, by State.

StateStorm tideWave heightReal-time rapid
deployment gages
Barometric pressure
Alabama137110
Mississippi564722
Louisiana4001023
Total10961855

The locations of these water-level sensors were selected to augment existing tide-gage networks and to ensure adequate monitoring in areas forecasted to have significant storm tide. After Hurricane Isaac made landfall in Louisiana, the sustained winds from the stalled hurricane exacerbated storm-tide flooding along the Louisiana and Mississippi coasts, and caused significant backwater to occur far inland along the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, which were very low because of previous prolonged drought conditions upstream. Of the 127 locations monitored, 2 water-level sensors (1 storm-tide and 1 wave-height) were lost or malfunctioned during the storm, and 2 sensors (1 storm-tide and 1 wave-height) did not record storm tide either due to a lack of water-level rise or because the sensor was installed too high above the water. A typical sensor installation is shown in figure 2.

Of the 127 monitored locations, 109 had sensors that were programmed to record water pressure at 30-second intervals, expressed as water level in feet above NAVD 88 following surveys completed during sensor recovery, and 55 locations had additional sensors to record barometric pressure at 30-second intervals, expressed in pounds per square inch (table 1). Water-level elevation and barometric pressure were recorded over time by the sensors during the storm, as shown in the example in figure 3, and a nearby HWM elevation was used to compare with the sensor data.

Of the 127 monitored locations, 18 were instrumented with real-time water level sensors that recorded water-level elevations every 15 minutes during the hurricane and updated hourly to USGS Web pages (table 1; fig. 4). Wave-height sensors that were co-located at six of the monitored locations along the gulf coast from Bay St. Louis, Mississippi to Dauphin Island, Alabama measured every 2 seconds from midnight to noon on August 29 (Wednesday).


A USGS scientist obtaining water-surface elevation data relative to a known reference elevation and deploying a storm-tide sensor at SSS-MS-JAC-039WV on the west side of Pascagoula Bay in Mississippi, August 28, 2012..

Example of a hydrograph displaying storm-tide elevation and barometric pressure data recorded during Hurricane Isaac, including nearby high-water mark elevation (HWM-MS-HAN-012).

Data were collected and processed following protocols established by McGee and others (2006) and expanded upon by McCallum and others (2012), which included correcting water pressure for changes in barometric pressure and salinity. Quality-control checks were made by (1) deploying redundant sensors at a subset of sites, (2) comparing water levels computed from recorded pressure data to water levels recorded at nearby USGS streamgaging and NOAA tidal stations, and (3) to co-located high-water marks where possible. In the aftermath of the storm, 50 HWM locations were surveyed relative to NAVD 88 in Mississippi, 53 locations in Louisiana, and 1 in Alabama, where the impacts of the storm were the most pronounced.

Pictures: A USGS rapid-deployment gage collecting real-time water-level and meteorological data at Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana.

Elevation Surveys

Reference points were established on permanent objects near the water-level sensors in order to relate the recorded water-surface elevation to NAVD 88. Graduated steel tapes were used to relate the elevation of the reference points to the water-level sensors. Survey-grade Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) equipment (fig. 5) was used to determine the elevation above NAVD 88 of the reference points and HWMs, per USGS technical guidance in Rydland and Densmore (2012). GNSS equipment relies on GEOID models to determine elevations above NAVD 88. A new model, the GEOID12, was released in July 2012; however, errors in the model were soon discovered for the gulf coast region in checking the surveying accuracy at benchmarks (http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/web/news/GEOID12_Error_Notice.shtml). Following analysis of the control data and a number of corrections, the GEOID12A model was released on September 11, 2012 (National Geodetic Survey, 2012). However, because this model was in beta testing during the initial recovery effort of this study, the GEOID09 model was used for consistency within the deployment area, and all elevations in this report were derived using the GEOID09 model.

National Geodetic Survey (NGS) benchmarks throughout the study area were surveyed for vertical control. Table 2 (back of report) lists the GNSS-derived elevations using both the GEOID09 and GEOID12A models for all NGS benchmarks surveyed during this study. Table 2 also lists the difference in the GNSS elevations for both models, and the published NGS elevations from the datasheets, which can be can be accessed at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/datasheet.prl.

A global positioning system used to survey storm-tide elevation after Hurricane Isaac..

Data Presentation

The data from the Hurricane Isaac storm-tide network constitute an extensive collection of continuous water-level records documenting a single, landfall hurricane. The data can be used to evaluate the performance of storm-tide models for maximum and incremental water level and flood extent and for site-specific effects of storm tide on natural and anthropogenic features of the environment. The data are available on a provisional basis in tab-delineated, ASCII format by site for each sensor by using a USGS interactive storm-tide mapper at http://wim.usgs.gov/isaacstormtidemapper/stormtidemapper.html.

Digital photographs for selected locations are available on the interactive mapper. Data for each sensor include location, date, time, water level, and barometric pressure and the data-processing date are provided in the file header. Data for HWMs include location, description and quality of the mark, and elevation.

A list of the 133 water-level and wave-height sensor locations and the peak elevation recorded at each are listed in table 3 (back of report). These temporary sensors were deployed to augment long-term monitoring networks operated by the USGS (table 4, back of report) and NOAA (table 5, back of report). All HWM data, both those co-located at a sensor and those independent of a sensor location, that were collected by the USGS immediately after Hurricane Isaac are listed in table 6 (back of report). The reference points and HWMs were surveyed to a vertical accuracy of 0.25 foot at the 95-percent confidence level and within 10 feet horizontally. All NOAA data are displayed to mean sea level.

Acknowledgments

This report was prepared in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The data in this report are the result of the long hours and effort by numerous staff in the USGS Water Science Centers in Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Georgia. The USGS would like to recognize the assistance and access to the real-time network (RTN) along the gulf coast provided by the Center for Geoinformatics at no charge because of the public safety nature of this event. The authors particularly highlight the leadership and dedication of USGS employees in the Wisconsin Water Science Center who assisted with the Storm-Tide Mapper updates to deliver these valuable data to numerous stakeholders in a very timely and accurate manner.

References Cited

McGee, B.D., Goree, B.B., Tollett, R.W., Woodward, B.K., and Kress, W.H., 2006, Hurricane Rita surge data, southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas, September to November 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 220, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/220/.

McCallum, B.E., Painter, J.A., and Frantz, E.R., 2012, Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Irene along the Atlantic coast of the United States, August 2011: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1022, available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1022/.

National Geodetic Survey, 2012, NOTICE: NGS update, September 11, 2012, GEOID12A model released: The NGS Geoid Page, available at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/GEOID/.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2008, Tides & currents: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, accessed October 9, 2012, at http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/index.shtml.

National Weather Service, 1974, The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale [updated February 1, 2012]: National Hurricane Center, accessed October 10, 2012, at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutsshws.php.

Rydlund, P.H., Jr., and Densmore, B.K., 2012, Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 11, chap. D1, 102 p. with appendixes, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/11d1/tm11-D1.pdf (PDF).

First posted December 13, 2012

Excel data files:

  • Table 1 - Number of monitoring sites, by state
  • Table 2 - GNSS/NGS elevation differences
  • Table 3 - Storm tides-temporary sites
  • Table 4 - Storm tides-USGS sites
  • Table 5 - Storm tides-NOAA sites
  • Table 6 - High-water marks

For additional information contact:
Chief, Office of Surface Water
U.S. Geological Survey
415 National Center, MS 415
Reston, VA 20192 
http://water.usgs.gov/osw

Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF); the latest version of Adobe Reader or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge.


Table 3. Hurricane Isaac peak storm-tide data for 133 U.S. Geological Survey temporarily-deployed sites, by State.

[NAVD 88, North American Vertical Datum of 1988; GMT, Greenwich meridian time; RDG, rapid-deployment gage]

Download Table 3 - Storm tides (Excel file)

Site identification
(Links to data file)
State/County Site type Data recorded Peak elevation,
feet above NAVD 88/
Peak storm-tide,
date and time (GMT)
(Links to chart)
302019088074181Alabama
Mobile
real-time RDGstorm tidenone
peak not recorded
SSS-AL-BAL-001WLAlabama
Baldwin
water levelstorm tide3.52
8/29/2012 16:35:51
SSS-AL-BAL-002WLAlabama
Baldwin
water levelstorm tide3.18
8/29/2012 15:14:00
SSS-AL-BAL-003WLAlabama
Baldwin
water levelstorm tide4.72
8/28/2012 16:55:00
SSS-AL-BAL-004WLAlabama
Baldwin
water levelstorm tide4.94
8/29/2012 17:29:00
SSS-AL-BAL-005WLAlabama
Baldwin
water levelstorm tide4.97
8/29/2012 16:31:30
SSS-AL-MOB-001WLAlabama
Mobile
water levelstorm tide4.93
8/29/2012 14:36:30
SSS-AL-MOB-002WVAlabama
Mobile
wave heightwave height7.43
8/29/2012 11:04:14
SSS-AL-MOB-003WLAlabama
Mobile
water levelstorm tide7.31
8/28/2012 20:54:30
SSS-AL-MOB-004WLAlabama
Mobile
water levelstorm tide5.28
8/29/2012 14:39:30
SSS-AL-MOB-005WLAlabama
Mobile
water levelstorm tide5.96
8/29/2012 16:06:00
SSS-AL-MOB-006WVAlabama
Mobile
wave heightwave height5.86
8/29/2012 11:10:28
SSS-AL-MOB-007WLAlabama
Mobile
water levelstorm tide5.31
8/29/2012 16:35:30
SSS-AL-MOB-008WLAlabama
Mobile
water levelstorm tide5.45
8/29/2012 19:07:30
SSS-AL-MOB-009WLAlabama
Mobile
water levelstorm tide5.40
8/29/2012 19:44:30
SSS-AL-MOB-010WLAlabama
Mobile
water levelstorm tide5.48
8/29/2012 19:38:30
00004264Louisiana
Jefferson
real-time RDGstorm tide4.28
8/30/2012 19:00:00
295020089411600Louisiana
St Bernard
real-time RDGstorm tide7.96
8/29/2012 11:15:00
300413090084304Louisiana
Jefferson
real-time RDGstorm tide7.41 GH
8/29/2012 13:15:00
3004510895507Louisiana
Orleans
real-time RDGstorm tide0.27
8/30/2012 23:00:00
300830089515000Louisiana
Orleans
real-time RDGstorm tide6.13
8/30/2012 8:15:00
301213894806Louisiana
St Tammany
real-time RDGstorm tide56.01 GH
8/30/2012 2:30:00
301609089504016Louisiana
St Tammany
real-time RDGstorm tide6.20
8/30/2012 5:45:00
301704090240655Louisiana
Tangipahoa
real-time RDGstorm tide6.99
8/30/2012 10:45:00
301847089560989Louisiana
St Tammany
real-time RDGstorm tide7.95
8/30/2012 5:45:00
302415090091465Louisiana
St Tammany
real-time RDGstorm tide8.45 GH
8/30/2012 3:45:00
SSS-LA-ORL-013WLLouisiana
Orleans
water levelstorm tide4.05
8/30/2012 14:45:00
SSS-LA-ORL-014WLLouisiana
Orleans
water levelstorm tide6.41
8/30/2012 8:59:00
SSS-LA-ORL-017WLLouisiana
Orleans
water levelstorm tide7.79
8/29/2012 8:10:30
SSS-LA-ORL-050WLLouisiana
Orleans
water levelstorm tide6.30
8/30/2012 4:01:00
SSS-LA-ORL-051WLLouisiana
Orleans
water levelstorm tide6.72
8/29/2012 16:18:00
SSS-LA-ORL-052WLLouisiana
Orleans
water levelstorm tide10.13
8/29/2012 15:48:00
SSS-LA-ORL-054WLLouisiana
Orleans
water levelstorm tide5.82
8/30/2012 9:24:00
SSS-LA-PLA-001WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide11.62
8/29/2012 4:48:30
SSS-LA-PLA-002WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide-0.26
8/29/2012 13:59:00
SSS-LA-PLA-003WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide11.97
8/29/2012 2:52:00
SSS-LA-PLA-004WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide14.41
8/29/2012 2:56:30
SSS-LA-PLA-005WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide13.29
8/29/2012 8:18:00
SSS-LA-PLA-006WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide13.49
8/29/2012 9:27:30
SSS-LA-PLA-007WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide7.12
8/29/2012 14:08:30
SSS-LA-PLA-008WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide8.10
8/29/2012 16:01:00
SSS-LA-PLA-009WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide-0.43
8/28/2012 19:39:00
SSS-LA-PLA-010WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide6.37
8/29/2012 6:44:00
SSS-LA-PLA-011WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide4.58
8/29/2012 14:30:00
SSS-LA-PLA-012WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide7.27
8/29/2012 13:57:00
SSS-LA-PLA-017WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelnonenone
lost
SSS-LA-PLA-018WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide14.07
8/29/2012 12:36:30
SSS-LA-PLA-019WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide13.89
8/29/2012 14:25:30
SSS-LA-PLA-020WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide14.00
8/29/2012 12:32:30
SSS-LA-PLA-021WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide13.53
8/29/2012 12:39:30
SSS-LA-PLA-022WLLouisiana
Plaquemines
water levelstorm tide13.71
8/29/2012 12:20:00
SSS-LA-STB-003WLLouisiana
St Bernard
water levelstorm tide2.00
8/29/2012 21:29:30
SSS-LA-STB-024WLLouisiana
St Bernard
water levelstorm tide11.57
8/29/2012 15:03:00
SSS-LA-STB-025WLLouisiana
St Bernard
water levelstorm tide10.18
8/29/2012 6:06:00
SSS-LA-STB-026WLLouisiana
St Bernard
water levelstorm tide11.45
8/29/2012 10:17:00
SSS-LA-STB-027WLLouisiana
St Bernard
water levelstorm tide10.77
8/29/2012 16:17:30
SSS-LA-STT-007WLLouisiana
St Tammany
water levelstorm tide8.50
8/30/2012 4:28:00
SSS-LA-STT-008WLLouisiana
St Tammany
water levelstorm tide8.28
8/30/2012 7:30:00
SSS-LA-STT-009WLLouisiana
St Tammany
water levelnonenone
no surge recorded
SSS-LA-STT-010WLLouisiana
St Tammany
water levelstorm tide7.91
8/30/2012 5:08:00
SSS-LA-STT-011WLLouisiana
St Tammany
water levelstorm tide10.04
8/30/2012 8:43:00
SSS-LA-STT-012WLLouisiana
St Tammany
water levelstorm tide9.35
8/30/2012 9:27:30
SSS-LA-STT-100WLLouisiana
St Tammany
water levelstorm tide9.32
8/29/2012 19:23:00
SSS-LA-STT-101WLLouisiana
St Tammany
water levelstorm tide7.50
8/29/2012 20:55:00
SSS-LA-STT-102WLLouisiana
St Tammany
water levelstorm tide9.70
8/29/2012 19:13:30
SSS-LA-TAN-004WLLouisiana
Tangipahoa
water levelstorm tide9.27
8/30/2012 8:55:30
02480605Mississippi
Harrison
real-time RDGstorm tidenone
peak not recorded
02481299Mississippi
Jackson
real-time RDGstorm tide6.96
8/29/2012 18:15:00
02481325Mississippi
Harrison
real-time RDGstorm tide8.66
8/29/2012 19:30:00
0248152650Mississippi
Harrison
real-time RDGstorm tide9.39
8/29/2012 17:00:00
02481667Mississippi
Hancock
real-time RDGstorm tide9.69
8/29/2012 16:30:00
02481671Mississippi
Hancock
real-time RDGstorm tide10.12
8/29/2012 17:45:00
02492670Mississippi
Hancock
real-time RDGstorm tide7.78
8/29/2012 12:00:00
SSS-MS-HAN-004WLMississippi
Hancock
water levelstorm tide10.73
8/29/2012 19:00:00
SSS-MS-HAN-012WLMississippi
Hancock
water levelstorm tide10.00
8/29/2012 18:12:00
SSS-MS-HAN-013WLMississippi
Hancock
water levelstorm tide8.78
8/29/2012 17:38:00
SSS-MS-HAN-014WLMississippi
Hancock
water levelstorm tide10.90
8/29/2012 17:39:30
SSS-MS-HAN-015WLMississippi
Hancock
water levelstorm tide11.60
8/29/2012 13:16:30
SSS-MS-HAN-016WLMississippi
Hancock
water levelstorm tide10.09
8/29/2012 17:06:30
SSS-MS-HAN-017WLMississippi
Hancock
water levelstorm tide9.52
8/29/2012 20:01:00
SSS-MS-HAN-018WLMississippi
Hancock
water levelstorm tide9.99
8/29/2012 14:33:30
SSS-MS-HAR-001WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide9.24
8/30/2012 2:34:00
SSS-MS-HAR-002WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide8.13
8/29/2012 18:07:30
SSS-MS-HAR-003WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelriverine18.50
8/30/2012 1:31:30
SSS-MS-HAR-004WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelriverine12.43
8/30/2012 7:29:00
SSS-MS-HAR-005WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide8.79
8/29/2012 17:49:00
SSS-MS-HAR-006WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide9.19
8/29/2012 17:57:00
SSS-MS-HAR-007WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide8.26
8/29/2012 20:18:30
SSS-MS-HAR-008WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide8.15
8/29/2012 19:55:00
SSS-MS-HAR-009WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide8.78
8/29/2012 20:14:00
SSS-MS-HAR-010WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide9.51
8/29/2012 18:20:00
SSS-MS-HAR-011WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide9.41
8/29/2012 17:55:00
SSS-MS-HAR-014WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide9.37
8/29/2012 17:45:30
SSS-MS-HAR-019WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide7.46
8/29/2012 18:57:30
SSS-MS-HAR-020WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide9.19
8/29/2012 18:07:00
SSS-MS-HAR-021WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide9.41
8/29/2012 18:04:30
SSS-MS-HAR-022WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide9.32
8/29/2012 17:55:00
SSS-MS-HAR-023WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide10.15
8/29/2012 17:34:00
SSS-MS-HAR-024WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide9.87
8/29/2012 18:21:00
SSS-MS-HAR-025WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide11.00
8/29/2012 17:19:00
SSS-MS-HAR-026WVMississippi
Harrison
wave heightwave height9.48
8/29/2012 12:01:14
SSS-MS-HAR-101WVMississippi
Harrison
wave heightnonenone
lost
SSS-MS-JAC-012WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.85
8/29/2012 18:53:00
SSS-MS-JAC-013WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.60
8/29/2012 19:12:30
SSS-MS-JAC-014WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.55
8/29/2012 16:56:00
SSS-MS-JAC-015WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.52
8/29/2012 16:43:30
SSS-MS-JAC-016WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.49
8/29/2012 17:19:00
SSS-MS-JAC-017WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide7.76
8/29/2012 15:45:00
SSS-MS-JAC-018WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.74
8/29/2012 17:15:30
SSS-MS-JAC-019WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide8.45
8/30/2012 4:18:00
SSS-MS-JAC-020WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.13
8/29/2012 16:42:00
SSS-MS-JAC-021WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide7.65
8/29/2012 16:11:30
SSS-MS-JAC-022WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.13
8/29/2012 16:31:00
SSS-MS-JAC-023WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.71
8/29/2012 17:18:30
SSS-MS-JAC-024WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.29
8/29/2012 17:18:30
SSS-MS-JAC-030WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide5.62
8/29/2012 19:00:30
SSS-MS-JAC-031WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide5.68
8/29/2012 17:53:30
SSS-MS-JAC-032WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide7.07
8/29/2012 17:42:00
SSS-MS-JAC-033WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide5.75
8/29/2012 16:18:30
SSS-MS-JAC-034WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide5.81
8/29/2012 16:18:00
SSS-MS-JAC-035WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelnonenone
no surge recorded
SSS-MS-JAC-036WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide7.19
8/29/2012 19:04:00
SSS-MS-JAC-037WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide7.46
8/29/2012 19:06:30
SSS-MS-JAC-038WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide7.11
8/29/2012 21:18:00
SSS-MS-JAC-039WVMississippi
Jackson
wave heightwave height6.70
8/29/2012 11:34:36
SSS-MS-JAC-040WVMississippi
Jackson
wave heightnonenone
no surge recorded
SSS-MS-JAC-050WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide5.00
8/29/2012 16:12:15
SSS-MS-JAC-051WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide5.42
8/29/2012 16:30:28
SSS-MS-JAC-052WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.15
8/29/2012 18:42:37
SSS-MS-JAC-053WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide7.55
8/29/2012 17:47:25
SSS-MS-JAC-054WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.06
8/29/2012 15:35:50
SSS-MS-JAC-055WLMississippi
Jackson
water levelstorm tide6.32
8/29/2012 15:18:56
SSS-MS-JAC-056WLMississippi
Harrison
water levelstorm tide7.49
8/29/2012 17:34:00

Suggested citation:

McCallum, B.E., McGee, B.D., Kimbrow, D.R., Runner, M.S., Painter, J.A., Frantz, E.R., and Gotvald, A.J., 2012, Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Isaac along the Gulf Coast of the United States, August 2012: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1263, 24 p. (Available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1263/.)


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