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USGS Open-File Report 2008-1330

Biological Communities and Geomorphology of Patch Reefs in Biscayne National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

Metadata

Each GIS file on this DVD includes an FGDC compliant XML metadata file. These are easily viewed using the metadata tab under ESRI ArcCatalog, or in a web browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer. Below are links to generic metadata files for the data located on this DVD. Additionally, short descriptions of the types of plots created for each patch reef can be found below.

Links to generic metadata:

  • Biological Community and Physical Structure Shapefile - Contains all the Reef and Fish Community data in standard ESRI shapefile format. Data parameters are stored as individual parameters within the shapefile.
  • Submerged Elevation DEMs - DEMs stored as standard single band geotiffs readable in GIS software packages such as ESRI ArcGIS.
  • Rugosity Maps - Rugosity (Topographic Complexity) maps stored as standard single band geotiffs readable in GIS software packages such as ESRI ArcGIS.
  • Contours - Contour lines for the Submerged Elevation DEMs stored in standard ESRI shapefile format. These data were used in the main map graphic.



Description of Map Types

  1. Submerged Elevation (Topographic Digital Elevation Map)
  2. Lidar Rugosity (Topographic Complexity Map)

Description of Plot Types

  1. Acanthuridae (Surgeonfish) - Adults
  2. Acanthuridae (Surgeonfish) - Juveniles
  3. Chain Rugosity
  4. Dictyota spp.
  5. Encrusting Invertebrates
  6. Gorgonian Volume and Abundance (Gorgonians)
  7. Haemulidae Adults (Adult Grunts)
  8. Haemulidae Juveniles (Juvenile Grunts)
  9. Halimeda tuna
  10. Live Coral
  11. Lutjanidae (Snappers)
  12. Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)
  13. Scaridae Adults (Adult Parrotfishes)
  14. Scaridae Juveniles (Juvenile Parrotfishes)
  15. Serranidae (Groupers)
  16. Species Richness
  17. Substratum Coverage
  18. Total Fish Abundance and Richness

  1. Submerged Elevation (Topographic Digital Elevation Map)
    Elevation data were collected by NASA using a Cessna 310 aircraft. The NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) laser scanner collects the data using a green (532nm) raster scanning laser, while a digital camera acquires a visual record of the flight. The navigational and raw data, stored on hard drives at the USGS office in St. Petersburg and the NASA office at Wallops Flight Facility, are downloaded into the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). Data are then converted from units of time to x,y,z points and the resulting derived surface data are then converted into gridded raster data. Maps are transverse mercator projections spatially referenced to the North American Datum of 1983 and vertically referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. Elevation measurements have been determined to be within 1 meter horizontal accuracy and 15 cm vertical accuracy.

  2. Lidar Rugosity (Topographic Complexity Map)
    Rugosity maps are derived from the submerged elevation data. Each data point of the digital elevation map is analyzed using a 10m by 10m area kernel centered on the point and a synaptic rugosity value is determined from the ratio: surface area to flat planar map area. Rugosity values are unit-less.

  1. Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes) - Adults
    The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the number of adult surgeonfish observed. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Surgeonfish abundance was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

  2. Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes) - Juveniles
    The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the number of juvenile surgeonfish observed. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Surgeonfish abundance was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

  3. Chain Rugosity
    Chain rugosity was determined in situ by divers using the traditional chain-transect method over a distance of 10 meters. Data are unit-less ratios of contoured distance versus linear distance. The plot shows the chain rugosity measured at each station on the patch reef over either the submerged elevation map for the region or the lidar derived rugosity map.

  4. Dictyota spp.
    The size of the plotted circle for each station represents the percent cover of Dictyota spp. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Percent cover of Dictyota spp. was estimated in 25 x 25 cm quadrats.

  5. Encrusting Invertebrates
    The size of the plotted circle for each station is determined by the percent cover of encrusted invertebrates. Encrusted invertebrates is a composite variable representing a community that negligibly contributes to reef building or sediment production. It includes Erythropodium caribaeorum, Briareum asbestinum, Palythoa caribaeorum, Millepora spp., and sponges, but excludes scleractinians. All individual components of this variable were estimated in 25 x 25 cm quadrats.

  6. Gorgonian Volume and Abundance
    The size of the plotted circle for each station represents the volume of gorgonians (cm3 per m2). The color of the plotted circle represents the abundance (number of gorgonians per m2). These data were gathered using 50 x 50 cm quadrats and scaled up to standard units. These data also exclude the prostrate gorgonians Erythropodium and Briareum.

  7. Haemulidae (Grunts) - Adults
    The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the number of adult grunts observed. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Grunt abundance was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

  8. Haemulidae (Grunts) - Juveniles
    The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the number of juvenile grunts observed. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Grunt abundance was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

  9. Halimeda tuna
    The size of the plotted circle for each station represents the percent cover of Halimeda tuna. Percent cover of Halimeda tuna was estimated in 25 x 25 cm quadrats.

  10. Live Coral
    The size of the plotted circle for each station is determined by the percent cover of live corals. Live coral cover was estimated in 25 x 25 cm quadrats.

  11. Lutjanidae (Snappers)
    The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the number of snappers observed. This plot combines individual measurements for adults and juveniles to give the total number of snappers observed. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Snapper abundance was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

  12. Pomacentridae (Damselfishes)
    The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the number of damselfish observed. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Damselfish abundance was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

  13. Scaridae (Parrotfishes) - Adults
    The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the number of adult parrotfish observed. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Parrotfish abundance was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

  14. Scaridae (Parrotfishes) - Juveniles
    The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the number of juvenile parrotfish observed. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Parrotfish abundance was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

  15. Serranidae (Groupers)
    The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the number of groupers observed. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Grouper abundance was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

  16. Species Richness
    The size of the plotted circle for each station describes species richness, defined as the number of fish species observed. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Species richness was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

  17. Substratum Coverage
    All substratum data are percent cover, estimated in 1 x 1 meter quadrats. The plot shows pie graphs for each station representing 100 percent cover divided into the percent individual components observed. Rubble was classified as large when grain size was between 30 to 40 cm, medium when between 15 to 30 cm, and small when between 1 and 15 cm. Sand was classified here as loose sediment with grain sizes smaller than 1 cm.

  18. Total Fish Abundance
    This plot shows total fish abundance. The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the total fish abundance observed. Total fish abundance is the total number of observed fish. The precise values are displayed directly above the plotted circles. Fish abundance was measured at each station within 7.5 meter radius imaginary cylinders from seafloor to water surface using the Bohnsack-Bannerot method.

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