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U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1042

National Assessment of Historical Shoreline Change: A Pilot Study of Historical Coastal Bluff Retreat in the Great Lakes, Erie, Pennsylvania


References Cited

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Anders, F.J., and Byrnes, M.R., 1991, Accuracy of shoreline change rates as determined from maps and aerial photographs: Shore and Beach, v. 59, p. 17-26.

Clemens, R.H., 1976, Selected environmental criteria for the design of artificial structures on the Southeast Shore of Lake Erie: Technical report no. 8-CRD, Columbia, S.C., University of South Carolina, Department of Geology, Coastal Research Division, 95 p.

Crowell, M., Leatherman, S.P., and Buckley, M.K., 1991, Historical shoreline change: Error analysis and mapping accuracy: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 7, p. 839-852.

Hapke, C., 2004, The measurement and interpretation of coastal cliff and bluff retreat, In Hampton, M. and Griggs, G., eds., Formation, evolution, and stability of coastal cliffs – Status and trends: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1693. p. 39-50.

Hapke, C., Reid, D., Richmond, B., Ruggiero, P., and List, J., 2006, National assessment of shoreline change part 3: Historical shoreline change and associated land loss along sandy shorelines of the California Coast, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1219, 79 p.

Hapke, C.J., and Reid, D., 2007, The National assessment of shoreline change: Part 4: Historical coastal cliff retreat along the California coast: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1133, 57 p., available at https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1133/.

Knuth, P.D., Burt, W., Flood, M., and Nagel, W., 1981, A geotechnical investigation of the coastal bluffs of Erie County, PA: Lake Erie Institute for Marine Science, Erie, Pa., 51 p.

Knuth, P.D., and Crowe, R.G., 1975, Shoreline erosion and flooding, Erie County: Harrisburg, Pa., Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, 247 p.

Moore, L. J., 2000, Shoreline mapping techniques: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 16, p. 111-124.

Morton, R.A., Miller, T.L., and Moore, L.J., 2004, National assessment of shoreline change, Part 1: Historical shoreline changes and associated coastal land loss along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2004-1043, 44 p.

Morton, R.A., Miller, T.L., 2005, National Assessment of shoreline Change, Part 2: Historical shoreline change and associated land loss along the U.S. South East Atlantic Coast: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1401, 40 p.

Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1990, Geologic map of Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Map 7, 1:2,000,000, accessed August 26, 2008, at http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/topogeo/maps/map7.pdf

Sevan, W.D. (comp.), 2000, Physiographic provinces of Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Map 13, accessed August 26, 2008, at http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/topogeo/maps/map13.pdf

Sevan, W.D. and Braun, D.D., 1997, Glacial deposits of Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Map 59, accessed August 26, 2008, at http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/topogeo/maps/map13.pdf

Stewart, C., 1994, United States Great Lakes shoreline recession rate data: Final report to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, 73 p.

Stockdon, H.F., Sallenger, A.H., List, J.H., and Holman, R.A., 2002, Estimation of shoreline position and change from airborne topographic lidar data: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 18, p. 502-513.

Thieler, E.R., Himmelstoss, E.A., Zichichi, J.L., and Miller, T.L., 2005, Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0: An ArcGIS© extension for calculating shoreline change: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1304.

Varnes, D.J., 1978, Landslide types and processes, Shuster, R.L., and Krizek, R.J., eds., Landslides: analysis and control:  Washington, DC, National Research Council, Special Report 176L, p. 11-33.


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