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Open-File Report 2015–1094

Exposure-Related Effects of Formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A to Glochidia from Seven Unionid Mussel Species

By James A. Luoma, Kerry L. Weber, Todd J. Severson, Theresa M. Schreier, Denise A. Mayer, Douglas B. Aloisi and Nathan L. Eckert

Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (14.1 MB)Abstract

The study was completed to evaluate the exposure-related effects of a biopesticide for dreissenid mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, zebra mussel and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, quagga mussel) control on glochidia from unionid mussels endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. The commercially prepared biopesticide was either a spray-dried powder (SDP) or freeze-dried powder (FDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A. Glochidia of the unionid mussel species Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Lampsilis higginsii, Ligumia recta, Obovaria olivaria, and Actinonaias ligamentina were exposed to SDP-formulated P. fluorescens and Lampsilis cardium and Megalonaias nervosa were exposed to FDP-formulated P. fluorescens.

All exposures were static, 24 hours in duration, and included six treatment groups. The treatment groups included (1) an untreated control, (2) a positive control which received a nominal target active ingredient (AI) concentration of 300 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of heat-deactivated test article, and (3) treatments that received nominal target AI concentrations of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/L of test article. All treatment concentrations are reported based on active ingredient.

Glochidia viability was reduced in two of the six species exposed to 50 mg/L SDP and in four of the six species exposed to 100 mg/L SDP when compared to untreated control groups at 6, 12, and 24 hours. Regardless of sample time, concentrations of 200 and 300 mg/L of SDP and 300 mg/L of heat-deactivated SDP (positive control) substantially reduced glochidia viability in all species except, L. higginsii. Glochidia viability was only reduced for L. cardium exposed to FDP at concentrations ≥ 200 mg/L. After 24 hours of FDP exposure, differences in glochidia viability were only detected in M. nervosa that were exposed to 300 mg/L of heat-deactivated SDP. However, given the low viability in the control group, the results for M. nervosa should be interpreted with caution.

First posted May 15, 2015

  • Open-File Report 2015–1050
    Companion Report - Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) Spray Dried Powder for Controlling Zebra Mussels Adhering to Test Substrates
  • Open-File Report 2015-1051
    Companion Report - Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A Spray Dried Powder for Controlling Zebra Mussels Adhering to Native Unionid Mussels Within Field Enclosures
  • Open-File Report 2015-1064
    Companion Report - Safety of Spray-Dried Powder Formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A Exposure to Subadult/Adult Unionid Mussels During Simulated Open-Water Treatments
  • Open-File Report 2015-1066
    Companion Report - Exposure-Related Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) on Juvenile Unionid Mussels
  • Open-File Report 2015-1104
    Companion Report - Exposure-Related Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Strain CL145A, on Coldwater, Coolwater, and Warmwater Fish

For additional information, contact:
Director, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center
U.S. Geological Survey
2630 Fanta Reed Road
La Crosse, WI 54603

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Suggested citation:

Luoma, J.A., Weber, K.L., Severson, T.J, Schreier ,T.M., Mayer, D.A., Aloisi, D.B, and Eckert N.L., 2015, Exposure-related effects of formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A to glochidia from seven unionid mussel species: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1094, 474 p.,

ISSN 2331-1258 (online)





Materials and Methods

Data Analysis

Results and Discussion


References Cited

Appendix 1. Study Protocol, Amendments, and Datasheets

Appendix 2. Deviations from the Study Protocol

Appendix 3. Randomization Assignments

Appendix 4. Test Article Information

Appendix 5. Test Animal Information

Appendix 6. Water Quality

Appendix 7. Glochidia Viability

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