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Scientific Investigations Report 2015–5052

Prepared in cooperation with the City of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Dam-Breach Analysis and Flood-Inundation Mapping for Selected Dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

By Molly J. Shivers, S. Jerrod Smith, Trevor S. Grout, and Jason M. Lewis

Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (4.97 MB)Abstract

Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and storage of water supplies, but they also entail risk; dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or improper operation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning an emergency response if a dam breach occurs.

This report presents results of a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the City of Oklahoma City to model dam-breach scenarios at 11 dams controlled and operated by Oklahoma City, Okla., and to map the potential flood-inundation areas of such dam breaches. To assist the City of Oklahoma City with completion of the emergency action plans for the 11 dams, the U.S. Geological Survey used light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data (2004), which produced a 2-foot contour elevation map for the flood plains around Oklahoma City. A 5-meter Digital Terrain Map was used to model the flood plain below Atoka Reservoir in southeastern Oklahoma.

Digital-elevation models, field survey measurements, hydraulic data, and hydrologic data (U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations North Canadian River below Lake Overholser near Oklahoma City, Okla. [07241000], and North Canadian River at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Okla. [07241520]), were used as inputs for the one-dimensional dynamic (unsteady-flow) models using Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) software. The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum flood dam-breach scenario and a sunny-day dam-breach scenario, as well as for maximum flood-inundation elevations and flood-wave arrival times at selected bridge crossings. Points of interest such as community-services offices, recreational areas, water-treatment plants, and wastewater-treatment plants were identified on the flood-inundation maps.

First posted April 29, 2015

For additional information contact:
Director, Oklahoma Water Science Center
U.S. Geological Survey
202 NW 66th, Bldg 7
Oklahoma City, OK 73116
http://ok.water.usgs.gov/

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Suggested citation:

Shivers, M.J., Smith S.J, Grout, T.S., and Lewis, J.M., 2015, Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2015–5052, 62 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20155052.

ISSN 2328-031X (print)

ISSN 2328-0328 (online)



Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Purpose and Scope

Description of Selected Dams and Lakes

Dam-Breach Analysis

Flood-Inundation Mapping

Sources of Uncertainty in Flood-Inundation Maps

Summary and Conclusions

References Cited

Appendix 1. Limitations Regarding Use of Flood-Inundation Maps

Appendix 2. Maps showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Atoka Reservoir dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood

Appendix 3. Map showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Dolese Youth Park Lake dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood

Appendix 4. Maps showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Dry Creek Detention Reservoir dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood

Appendix 5. Maps showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Lake Hefner dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood

Appendix 6. Maps showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Lake Overholser dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood

Appendix 7. Maps showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Lightning Creek Holding Pond A dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood

Appendix 8. Maps showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Lightning Creek Holding Pond C dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood

Appendix 9. Maps showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Northeast (Zoo) Lake dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood

Appendix 10. Map showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Northwest Oklahoma City Sludge Lagoon dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood

Appendix 11. Maps showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Stanley Draper Lake dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood

Appendix 12. Maps showing inundated areas for the 75-percent probable maximum flood and sunny-day Will Rogers Park Holding Pond dam-breach model scenarios and time to peak stage for the 75-percent probable maximum flood


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