Coal in the United States
Coal Production and Consumption
What is Coal?
Minerals in Coal
Why is Coal So Complex?
Biological and Chemical Processes
Swamp Geometry, Location, and Climate
Determining the Quality of Coal
Coal Quality and Public Health, by Robert B. Finkelman
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Balkan Endemic Nephropathy
Appendix 1. Federal Agencies With Regulatory or Research Responsibilities for Coal and Coal Quality
1. Graph showing trends in U.S. coal production from 1900 to 1999
2. Diagram showing energy consumption and production in the U.S.
3. Photograph of the coal-fired Navajo power plant near Page, Ariz.
4. Map showing coal fields of the U.S.
5.–7. Photographs showing—
5. Uses for coal-combustion byproducts
6. Okefenokee Swamp, Ga.
7. Examples of peat and coal beds
8. Block-diagram models illustrating peat-sediment-climate relations
9. Chart showing the periodic table of the elements
10. Diagram showing hypothetical structure of a lignin-like organic molecule in brown coal (lignite)
11. Photomicrograph of pyrite filling fractures in coal
12. Photograph of a coal ball specimen from the Carbondale Formation, Illinois basin
13. Photograph and photomicrographs of Pennsylvanian bituminous coal
14. Scanning-electron microscope photomicrograph of a fragment of pyrite infilling plant cells in coal
15. Photographs of mineral deposits on boiler walls and pipes
16. Photograph of cross section of calcareous coal ball from Murphysboro coal bed equivalent, Indiana
17. Diagram showing classification of coals by rank in the U.S.
18. Carbon-13 nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectra of coals of increasing rank
19. Chart showing divisions of geologic time
20. Photograph of an in-situ fossilized tree stump in the roof of a coal bed in an underground mine
21. Reconstruction of a tropical peat swamp of Middle Pennsylvanian age
22. Reconstruction of fluvial swamp and peripheral, bottom-land vegetation of Late Cretaceous age
23. Sketches illustrating a possible evolution from a planar peat deposit to a domed peat deposit
24.–28. Photographs showing—
24. Lens-shaped parting in a coal bed in the highwall of a strip mine
25. Face cleat in an exposed coal bed
26. Collection of a channel coal sample from a coal bed in an underground mine
27. Core-drilling rig and a collected core
28. Coal scientist at work identifying coal macerals
Centerfold. Illustration showing coal byproducts in tree form with basic chemicals as branches and derivative substances as twigs and leaves
1. Common minerals found in coal and their elemental compositions
2. Procedures and purposes of ASTM International (ASTM) methods for testing coal
3. Analytical methods and individual techniques used in research on coal quality and their purposes
4. Results of standard ASTM International (ASTM) analyses and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research analyses of a sample (USGS 212277) of Pennsylvanian bituminous coal from the Mary Lee coal bed, Walker County, Ala.
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
URL: https:// pubs.usgs.gov /circ/c1143/html/contents.html
For more information, contact Stanley Schweinfurth
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