USGS

 

Ground-Water-Level Monitoring and the Importance of Long-Term Water-Level Data

U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1217

by Charles J. Taylor and William M. Alley

 

CONTENTS

Foreword

Introduction

Essential Components of Water-Level Monitoring Programs

Selection of Observation Wells

Frequency of Water-Level Measurements

Quality Assurance

Data Reporting

Uses and Importance of Long-Term Water-Level Data

Ground-Water Development in the High Plains and Gulf Coastal Plain

The High Plains Aquifer

The Gulf Coastal Plain Aquifer System

Memphis, Tennessee

Houston, Texas

Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Changes in Regional Ground-Water Flow

Drought Monitoring in Pennsylvania

Estimation of High Ground-Water Levels in Massachusetts and Rhode Island

Ground-Water and Surface-Water Interaction in Oregon

Wetland Hydrology in Michigan

Relevance of Water-Level Data to Ground-Water Quality Issues

Saline Water Intrusion in New Jersey

Upwelling of Saline Water in Utah

Effects of Residential Development in Montana

Innovative and Emerging Applications

Status of Water-Level Data-Collection Programs

Challenges and Future Opportunities

Acknowledgments

References

BOXES

Box A—Hydraulic Head and Factors Causing Changes in Ground-Water Levels

Box B—Ground-Water-Level Measurements: Why the Choice of Frequency Matters

Box C—Statistical Design of Water-Level Monitoring Networks

Box D—Ground-Water-Level Monitoring in the 1930’s, 1950’s, and Today


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