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U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1091

High-Resolution Geophysical Data Collected Within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009

Conversion Factors and Datum

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SI to Inch/Pound



To obtain


centimeter (cm)


inch (in.)

meter (m)


foot (ft)

kilometer (km)


mile (mi)

kilometer (km)


mile, nautical (nmi)

meter (m) 1.094 yard (yd)

square kilometer (km²)


square mile (mi²)

square kilometer (km²) 247.1 acre

Phi-notation (Krumbein, 1934) as used in this report is defined as Ф = -log2(d), where d is the grain diameter in millimeters. Phi-class intervals in millimeters are given in the data dictionary in the Sediments section of this report.

The frequency of multibeam bathymetry is measured in kilohertz (kHz), 1,000 periods per second.

Horizontal coordinate information projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 18 is referenced to the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83); horizontal information in geographic coordinates is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84). The vertical datum for tidal-zone measurements is mean lower low water (MLLW) [the average of the lower low water height of each tidal day observed over the national tidal datum epoch].

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