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U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1351

USGS Cold-Water Coral Geographic Database—Gulf of Mexico and Western North Atlantic Ocean, Version 1.0

References Cited

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For a list of the references used to populate the database, see Appendix 1: Citations of Data Sources

The Atlantic Coral Ecosystem Study (ACES), 2003, The Atlantic coral ecosystem study final report. Compiled by A. Freiwald, 250 p.

Adkins, J. F., Cheng, H., Boyle, E. A., Druffel, E. R. M., and Edwards, R. L., 1998,  Deep-sea coral evidence for rapid change in ventilation of the deep North Atlantic 15,400 years ago: Science, v. 280, no. 5364, p. 725-728.

Brusca, R.C., and Brusca, G.J., 2003, Invertebrates, (2d ed.):  Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA,  936 p.

Costello, M. J., Stocks, K., Zhang, Y., Grassle, J. F., and Fautin, D. G., 2007, About the ocean biogeographic information system: accessed on March 1, 2007 at

Deichmann, Elisabeth, 1936, The Alcyonaria of the western part of the Atlantic Ocean:  Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, v. 53, 317 p.

Fautin, Daphne G., and Buddemeier, R. W., 2006, Biogeoinformatics of the hexacorals: accessed on March 1, 2007 at

Hecker, Barbara, Blechschmidt, Gretchen, and Gibson, Patricia, 1980, Epifaunal zonation and community structure in three mid- and north Atlantic canyons—­final report for the canyon assessment study in the mid- and north Atlantic areas of the U.S. outer continental shelf: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management Monograph, 139 p.

Ocean Biogeographic Information System, 2007, Ocean biogeographic information system database: accessed numerous times in 2007 at

Pontoppidan, E., 1755, The Natural History of Norway:  A. Linde, London, 497 p.

Roberts, J. M., Wheeler, A. J., and Freiwald, Andre, 2006, Reefs of the deep—the biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystems: Science, v.312, p. 543-547.

Rogers, A. D., 1999, The biology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus 1758) and other deep-water reef-forming corals and impacts from human activities: International Review of Hydrobiology, v. 84, p. 315-406.

Theroux, R. B. and Wigley, R. L., 1998, Quantitative composition and distribution of the macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of the continental shelf ecosystems of the northeastern United States:  NOAA Technical Report NMFS 140, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Scientific Publications Office Monograph, 240 p.

Watling, L., and Auster, P.J., 2005, Distribution of deepwater Alcyonacea off the northeast coast of the United States, in Freiwald, Andre, and Roberts, J. M., eds., 2005, Cold-water corals and ecosystems: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 279-296. 

Watling, L., Auster, P. J., Babb, I., Skinder, C., and Hecker, B., 2003, A geographic database of deepwater alcyonaceans of the northeastern U.S. continental shelf and slope:  Groton, National Undersea Research Center, University of Connecticut, Version 1.0 CD-ROM. 

Wilson, John B., 2001, Lophelia 1700 to 2000 and beyond, in Willison, J.H., Martin, J. H., Gass, S. E., Kenchington, E. L. R., Butler, Mark, and Doherty, Penny, eds., Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Deep-Sea Corals, Ecology Action Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, p. 1-5.

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