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U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1040

Continuous Resistivity Profiling Data From Great South Bay, Long Island, New York


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anomalies    Unusually high or low values or patterns.

aquifer (surficial and confined)    A permeable water-bearing layer of sediment or rock; a confined aquifer is isolated from the ground surface by one or more low-permeability layers of sediment or rock, while a surficial or unconfined aquifer is not.


barrier island    a long, narrow island that usually comprises sand and gravel and is generally parallel to the shore of a larger land mass and separated from it by shallow open water and wetlands.


conductivity    The ability of a material or mixture to carry an electrical current.


dipole    A pair of positive and negative charges separated by a small distance.


estuary    A body of water typically found where a river meets the ocean.

eutrophication    An increase in the concentration of dissolved nutrients in a water body that increases growth or algae, often to a harmful degree and often caused by human influences.


groundwater    Water located beneath the ground surface or sediment surface in pore spaces and fractures.


hydrostratigraphy    Structure of subsurface porous materials in reference to the flow of groundwater, often relating to stratigraphy.


interpolated    Interpreted conditions between locations of measured data.

inversion    The process of working backwards from measured properties, such as electrical resistivity, to reconstruct the actual conditions that yielded the measurements.


Julian day    Day of the year measured from January 1, without regard to months.


linearized    Converted from an irregular or curved path into a straight line to simplify computations.


nutrients    Chemicals that organisms needs to live and grow, especially dissolved forms of nitrogen in the case of estuaries.


peat    Organic-rich sediment deposited beneath wetlands.

porewater    The water occupying the spaces between sediment particles.

potential    The property of electrical potential energy divided by electrical charge, usually measured in volts.

profile    A cross-section produced from geophysical data.

pseudosection     An image plotting apparent electrical resistivity data against position along a traverse line; this image is produced as an intermediate step to reconstructing the true electrical properties and geometry of a measured transect.


resistivity    A measure of how strongly a material or mixture opposes the flow of electric current through it.


saline    At or near the saltiness of seawater.

shapefile    A data format commonly used for geographic information systems files.

streamer    A cable towed behind a ship that contains electrodes or acoustic sensors.

surface water    Water occurring in the form of a stream, river, lake, estuary, or ocean.


trackline    An individual segment of a larger marine geophysical survey, often assigned a sequential number that corresponds to the order in which that interval of data was collected.


voltage    The driving force that moves an electrical current between two points, measured in units of volts.

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