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Professional Paper 1386–A

Chapter A-5 (Figures 1–50)

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Figure 1.—Terms used to describe ground temperature relative to 0°C in a permafrost environment (modified from van Everdingen, 1985).

Figure 2.—The thermal influence of water bodies on the underlying permafrost. The talik, or unfrozen
layer, develops under a deep lake (modified from Lachenbruch and others, 1962).

Figure 3.—Generalized permafrost map of the Northern Hemisphere, including limit of subsea permafrost, based on the IPA Circum-Arctic Map
(Brown and others, 1997; figure prepared by Dmitri Sergeev, Permafrost Laboratory, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks).

Figure 4.—Permafrost distribution in the Antarctic: A, Generalized map (modified from Bockheim, 1995); black areas are
ice-free areas with permafrost, shaded areas are location of likely subglacial permafrost, and (+) location of subglacial lakes.

Figure 4.—Permafrost distribution in the Antarctic: B, Theoretical map including subglacial permafrost distribution as originally
proposed by Zotikov in 1963 with translated legend by Andrey Abramov (Kotlyakov, 1997; Zotikov, 2006).

Figure 5.—Idealized latitudinal distribution of permafrost characteristics from northwestern Canada, 
including the Northwest Territories (NWT) (modified from Ballantyne and Harris, 1994).

Figure 6.—Idealized diagram of altitudinal distribution of sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost (figure provided
by Sergei Marchenko, Permafrost Laboratory, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks).

Figure 7.—Legend for the Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions of the Northern Hemisphere (Brown and others, 1997).

Figure 8.—Cryogenic regions of South America; black is area of mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 0° to -5°C, including ice covers (after Trombotto, 2000).

Figure 9.—Long-term trends in permafrost temperatures for selected locations in the Northern Hemisphere (modified from Brown, Hubberten, and Romanovsky, 2008).
A, Permafrost temperatures from European Russia (VT-Vorkuta; RG-Rogovoi; KT-Karataikha; MB-Mys Bolvansky); B, Permafrost temperatures from Yakutia, Russia (TK-Tiksi; YK-Yakutsk); C, Permafrost temperatures from western Siberia (UR-Urengoi; ND-Nadym); D, Changes in permafrost temperatures at 20-m depth in Alaska (WD-West Dock; DH-Deadhorse; FB-Franklin Bluffs; HV-Happy Valley; LG-Livengood; GK-Gulkana; BL-Birch Lake; OM-Old Man); E, Permafrost temperatures from Central Asia (KZ-Kazakhstan; MG-Mongolia); and F, Ground temperatures at depths of 10 to 12 m between 1984 and 2006 (A–F) northwestern Canada (WG-Wrigley; NW-Norman
Wells; NA-Northern Alberta; FS-Fort Simpson).

Figure 10.—Illustrations of eight types of segregated ice in permafrost cores (provided by M.T. Jorgenson, ABR, Inc., Fairbanks, Alaska).

Figure 11.—Two examples of large ice wedges: A, Massive ice wedges and thawing of permafrost along the bank of the Kolyma River, Siberia, Russia (photograph provided by Vladimir Romanovsky.

Figure 11.—Two examples of large ice wedges: B, Ice wedges exposed in road cut along Steese Highway near Fox (Fairbanks), Alaska. (1977 photograph provided by Steven Arcone, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory).

Figure 12.—Schematic drawing of the evolution of an ice wedge according to the contraction-crack theory (Lachenbruch, 1962).

Figure 13.—A, Schematic map of the Edoma “Ice Complex” in northern Siberia. (1) Areas of extensive occurrences of the ice complex across a range of landforms; (2) areas of the ice complex occurring only in river valleys and lake depressions; 3–5 southern boundaries of regions of contemporary ice wedge development: in 
(3) peat deposits; (4) silt and clay deposits; (5) sand and gravel deposits; (6) southern boundary of the regions of low-centered polygons; (7) southern boundary of permafrost (N.N. Romanovskii, 1993). B, Exposure of eroding Edoma deposit along the Laptev Sea coast, northern Siberia, Russia (photograph by Volker Rachold).

Figure 14.—Oblique aerial photograph of ice wedge polygonal ground, Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska (photograph by Robert I. Lewellen).

Figure 15.—Pingo on the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, Mackenzie River delta, N.W.T., Canada (photograph by Harald Svensson, University of Copenhagen, Department of Geography).

Figure 16.—Diagram illustrating the genesis and collapse of the closed-system pingos of the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula area, Northwest Territories, Canada (from Mackay, 1998).

Figure 17.—Open-system pingo in upper Adventdalen, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway
(photograph by Ole Humlum, University of Oslo, Department of Geography and The University Centre in Svalbard).

Figure 18.—A 5.5 m-high palsa in Varangerfjord area, northern Norway (photograph by Harald Svensson, University of Copenhagen, Department of Geography).

Figure 19.—Rock glacier in Atigun Pass area, northern Brooks Range, Alaska (photograph by Atsushi Ikeda, University of Tsukuba, Japan).

Figure 20.—Morenas Coloradas rock glacier in Argentina (photograph by D. Trombotto; from Romanovsky, Gruber, and others, 2007).

Figure 21.—Distribution of rock glaciers, glaciers, ice-cored moraines, and thermokarst features, Mendoza basin, western Cerro Aconcaqua, Argentina (Corte, 1998; fig. 18, p. I139–I141). Numbers refer to individual glaciers and rock glaciers assigned by Arturo Corte.

Figure 22.—Initiation of thermokarst by melting of ice at intersections of ice wedges, northern Alaska (photograph by M.T. Jorgenson, ABR, Inc., Fairbanks, Alaska).

Figure 23.—Vertical aerial photograph of beaded stream channels resulting from melting of ice wedges and thawing of surrounding ice-rich permafrost.
The photograph was taken in summer 2004 south of the town of Nuiqsut, northern Alaska, by M.T. Jorgenson, ABR, Inc., Fairbanks, Alaska.
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Figure 24.—Thaw-lake basins on the Arctic Alaska Coastal Plain. The central deep basins result from the thaw of ice-rich sediments with a resulting underlying thaw bulb (see fig. 2) (photograph by Ben Jones, U.S. Geological Survey).

Figure 25.—Landsat 7 ETM+ false-color composite image of the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain showing a predominance of elongated oriented lakes 
and other forms of thermokarst lakes. The lakes are oriented approximately north-south; the prevailing wind direction is from the northeast. Landsat 7 ETM+ image (L71079010-01020000815, path 79, row 10; 15 August 2000) from the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, S. Dak.

Figure 26.—Alas valley resulting from thawing of ice-rich permafrost, central Siberia, Russia (photograph by Vladimir Romanovsky, University of Alaska Fairbanks).

Figure 27.—Large retrogressive thaw slump, northwest Alaska, triggered by lateral erosion of the Selawik River (photograph by Kenji Yoshikawa, University of Alaska Fairbanks).

Figure 28.—Thawing permafrost, western Canadian Arctic (photograph by Hugh French).

Figure 29.—Solifluction lobes, north of Griegdalen, Svalbard, Norway
(photograph by Ole Humlum, University of Oslo, Department of Geography and The University Centre in Svalbard).

Figure 30.—Patterned ground as illustrated by sorted circles (see rifle for comparison of size), Kongsfjorden-Brøggerhalvøya area, Svalbard, Norway
(photograph by Grzegorz Rachlewicz,Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznan, Poland).

Figure 31.—Nivation hollow, Disko Island, Greenland (photograph by Ole Humlum, University of Oslo, Department of Geography and The University Centre in Svalbard).

Figure 32.—The face of an icing (5-m high) along Echooka River, northern Alaska, 11 July 1972 (Sloan and others, 1976).

Figure 33.—Landsat 1 MSS image of icings in northeastern Alaska on 4 August 1973 (fig. 9-24 in Williams, 1986). Landsat 1 MSS image (1377-2112, band 6) from the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, S. Dak.

Figure 34.—Coastal erosion initiated by undercutting of the bank (niche) that subsequently results in block collapse. Several ice wedges are exposed along the Beaufort Sea at Pitt Point, coast of northern Alaska (photograph by M.T. Jorgenson, ABR, Inc., Fairbanks, Alaska).

Figure 35.—Relict pattern of ice-wedge polygons on the Laholm Plain, near the west coast of Sweden (photograph by Harald Svensson, University of Copenhagen, Department of Geography).

Figure 36.—Map showing the extent of seasonally frozen soils of the Northern Hemisphere; both permafrost and regions south of the permafrost boundary are included (Zhang and others, 2003).

Figure 37.—Map showing coastline type and mean annual historical erosion rates along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska based on analysis of high-resolution imagery and geodetic ground control (Jorgenson and Brown, 2005).

Figure 38.—Horizontal surface velocities on part of the Muragl Glacier forefield, Switzerland (from fig. 9-31 in Kääb, 2005).

Figure 39.—Location of the sites and the type of measurements in the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring Network (CALM).

Figure 40.—Location of borehole sites for the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost(GTN-P) and the IPY Thermal State of Permafrost project (provided by Vladimir
Romanovsky, University of Alaska Fairbanks).

Figure 41.—A, Locations of University of Alaska borehole observatories (provided by Vladimir Romanovsky, University of Alaska Fairbanks) and locations of the U.S.
Geological Survey (USGS) deep boreholes in northern Alaska (Lachenbruch and
Marshall, 1986); and B, Warming in degrees Celsius of permafrost at 20-m depth
between 1989 and 2007/2008 at USGS borehole sites within and admacent to National
Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) (courtesy of Gary D. Clow, USGS). On A, NPRA is
the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska; ANWR is Alaska National Wildlife Refuge.

Figure 42.—Failed building as a result of differential thaw of ice-rich permafrost, Fairbanks, Alaska (photograph taken May 2004 by Vladimir Romanovsky,
University of Alaska, Fairbanks).

Figure 43.—Attempt to control shoreline erosion using riprap at
Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, Canada (photograph by Steve Solomon, Geological Survey of Canada).

Figure 44.—Pile foundations to prevent thaw settlement, Russian mining community, Pyramiden, Svalbard, Norway (photograph by Ole Humlum, University of Oslo,
Department of Geography and The University Centre in Svalbard).

Figure 45.—Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) on elevated thermopiles to prevent permafrost thaw (photograph courtesy of Alyeska Pipeline Service Company).

Figure 46.—Thermosyphons along the Qinghai-Tibet Railroad, China (photograph
courtesy of the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Institute,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China).

Figure 47.—Kolka-Karmadon ice-rock avalanche of 20 September 2002. NASA
International Space Station photograph no. ISS005-E-17830 (photograph 
courtesy of Office of Public Affairs, National Aeronautics and
Space Administration, Washington, D.C.)

Figure 48.—Modeled circumpolar permafrost temperatures
(mean annual temperature at the permafrost surface) for A, 2000; B, 2050, and C, 2100 (modified from Romanovsky, Gruber, and others, 2007).

Figure 49.—Distribution of soil organic carbon content in the northern 
circumpolar permafrost region based on data in the Northern Circumpolar
Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD) (Tarnocai and others, 2009).

Figure 50.—Combustion of methane from organic-rich sediments at Shuchi Lake,
Siberia, Russia, in March 2007. Katey W. Anthony is on the left, Nikita Zimov on the
right. Photograph by Sergey A. Zimov, Director, Northeast Science Station, Cherskii,
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. (Photograph courtesy of Katey W. Anthony,
University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska.)
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