Lava-Cooling Operations During the 1973 Eruption of Eldfell Volcano,
Heimaey, Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-724

Table of Contents

Title Page

Editor's Introduction by Richard S. Williams, Jr.,

Lava Cooling by Próf. Þorbjörn Sigurgeirsson

Lava Cooling on Heimaey-Methods and Procedures by Valdimar Kr. Jónsson and Matthías Matthíasson

Appendix 1

Appendix 2


Table 1.
Summary of pumps
[deployed for
lava cooling]

Figure 7.
Figure 7. Heimaey at the end of the volcanic eruption

Figure 16.
Figure 16. Map showing the locations of eight boreholes, old and new roads, and two trenches.

Table 2.
Types of jobs and
number employed
in lava-cooling
operations between
April and June 1973

Figure 8.
Figure 8. Quantity of sea water used to cool the lava between 6 February and 10 July 1973.

Figure 17.
Figure 17. Temperature measurements in borehole I, II, III, and VIII drilled on different dates.

Table 3.
Summary of cost
6 of lava
cooling [operations]

Figure 9.
Figure 9. Seawater being pumped directly on the lava-flow front from the dredge Sandey

Figure 18.
Figure 18. Temperature measurements in boreholes V and VI

Figure 1.
Figure 1. Photograph of Próf. &#THORN;orbj&#ouml;rn Sigurgeirsson

Figure 10.
Figure 10.

Figure 19.
Figure 19.

Figure 2.
Figure 2. Index maps of Iceland, the Vestmannaeyjar volcanic archipelago, and the island of Heimaey

Figure 11.
Figure 11. Map showing area, dates indicating duration of lava-cooling operations, and quantity in tonnes of seawater delivered

Figure 20.
Figure 20. Graph showing normal rate of cooling of lava over time with depth from the surface

Figure 3.
Figure 3. Sketch map of part of the town of Vestmannaeyjar and northeastern Heimaey

Figure 12.
Figure 12.  Graph showing type of pipe used in the lava-cooling operations

Figure 21.
Figure 21. Map showing the surge of successive lava flows into the center of Vestmannaeyjar

Figure 4.
Figure 4. Branching lava flows at Heiðmörk in southwestern Iceland

Figure 13.
Figure 13

Figure 22.
Figure 22

Figure 5.
Figure 5

Figure 14.
Figure 14. Map showing location of pipelines in the water-distribution system used for lava cooling

Figure 23.
Figure 23. Map showing movement of the new lavas during a five-week period

Figure 6.
Figure 6. Vertical aerial photograph when lava cooling was at its maximum

Figure 15.
Figure 15

Figure 24.
Figure 24

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