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Professional Paper 1386–A

Chapter A-4 (Figures 1–30)

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Figure 1.—North polar location map and monthly sea-ice distribution in March (white and light blue) and September (white), averaged for the 25-year period from 1979 to 2003. The sea-ice distributions are derived from satellite data discussed in the “Annual Cycle of Sea Ice” section.
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Figure 2.—South polar location map and monthly sea-ice distribution in February
(white) and September (white and light blue), averaged for the 25-year period from
1979 to 2003. The sea-ice distributions are derived from satellite data discussed in
the “Annual Cycle of Sea Ice” section.
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Figure 3.—A, NOAA 17 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image of the Bering Sea for 16 March 2003.
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Figure 4.B, National Ice Center (NIC) sea-ice-analysis
chart for the week of 17–21 March 2003.
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Figure 4.—Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of St. Matthew Island, Alaska, in the Bering Sea on 13 March 2003. The image
shows the detailed structure of the sea-ice edge near the island.
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Figure 5.—Same-day sea-ice images from microwave and visible/infrared sensors. Left: The Arctic region on 12 March 2003, as imaged from the 89-GHz vertically
polarized channel of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E), at a pixel resolution of 5 km. Right: Ice-surface temperature in the Fram Strait on 12 March 2003, as determined from data from the EOS Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). (Images from Hall and others, 2004.
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Figure 6.—Graph of the “Keeling Curve,” the instrumental record of the measurement of the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth’s atmosphere at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii from 1958 (313 ppm) to 2009 (390 ppm). From figure at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Web site: [http://www.esh.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/co2_data_mlo.html].
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Figure 7.—Monthly average sea-ice concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere for January–December, averaged for the 25-year period from 1979 to 2003. The sea-ice 
concentrations are derived from data from NASA’s Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI).
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Figure 8.—The 2001 (dashed lines) and the 25-year average (solid lines) (1979–2003) annual cycles of monthly average sea-ice extent for the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere, and the 
total (Global).
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Figure 9.—Monthly average sea-ice concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere for January–December 2001, as derived from data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI).
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Figure 10.—Monthly average sea-ice concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere for January–December, averaged for the 25-year interval from 1979 to 2003. The sea-ice concentrations are derived from data from NASA’s Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI).
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Figure 11.—Monthly average sea-ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere, November 1978–December 2003. B, Deviations in monthly sea-ice extents in the Northern Hemisphere, November 1978–December 2003. C, Yearly and seasonal average sea-ice extents in the Northern Hemisphere, 1979–2003. Winter is averaged for January–March; spring is averaged for April–June; summer is averaged for July–September; and autumn is averaged for October–December. All values are derived from data from NASA’s Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI). (Updated from Parkinson and others, 1999.)
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Figure12.—A, Monthly average sea-ice extents in the Southern Hemisphere, November 1978–December 2003. B, Deviations in monthly sea-ice extents in the Southern Hemisphere, November 1978–December 2003. C, Yearly and seasonal average sea-ice extents in the Southern Hemisphere, 1979–2003. Summer is averaged for January–March; autumn is averaged for April–June; winter is averaged for July–September; and spring is averaged for October–December. All values are derived from data from NASA’s Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI). (Updated from Zwally and others, 2002.)
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Figure 13.—Monthly average July sea-ice concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere for each year in the period from 1979 to 2003, as derived from data from NASA’s Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI).
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Figure 14.—Monthly average January sea-ice concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere for each year in the period from 1979 to 2003, as derived from data from NASA’s Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI).
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Figure 15.—Number of papers published on topics about the Earth’s cryosphere from 1994 to 2003. The data were obtained using the Biblioline online database for the Arctic and Antarctic regions.
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Figure 16.—Ice break-up at 33.5 Mile Pond, Steese Highway, Alaska, showing A, the high albedo of snow ice (white ice) on 1 May 2004, and B, the low albedo of the underlying S2 congelation (black ice) on 7 May 2004, after the snow ice had melted completely. Note the low albedo of the water in the moat that accelerates ice decay
around the margins. Photographs by Martin O. Jeffries, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
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Figure 17.—Freeze-up on the Chena River, Fairbanks, Alaska, in autumn 2001 showing, A, early, thin border ice by the left/north bank and ice pans in the channel on 21 October; B, narrowing of the open channel as the border ice ex-pands away from the banks on 28 October; and C, closure of the channel as a lodgement forms and the pack expands upstream as ice pans are stopped at the blockage on 4 November. Photographs by Martin O. Jeffries, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
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Figure 18.—Heat and mass transfer from open water on the Chena River, Fairbanks, Alaska, are manifested as a fog plume on a cold (-25°C) morning, 5 March 2002. This reach of the river freezes only during the coldest weather because the water is artificially heated by a power plant located ˜1 km upstream (into the page). Photograph by Martin O. Jeffries, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
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Figure 19a.—A, Aufeis at Big Eldorado Creek where it enters a culvert below Goldstream Road, 6 km north of Fairbanks, Alaska, on 16 May 2006.
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Figure 19b.—On gravel bars in the Robertson River, Alaska Highway mile 1345 (170 road miles/272 km, southeast of Fairbanks), on 27 May 2006. Photographs by Martin O. Jeffries, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
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Figure 20.—European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image on 1 January 1992, showing widespread ice fracturing and ridging in McTavish Arm (lat 66.1°N., long 119.00°W.), Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada (from Morris and others, 1995). The image covers an area of 70 km by 80 km on the ground.
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Figure 21.—Landsat-7 ETM+ (bands 3, 4, 5) images show break-up on Great Slave Lake (lat 61.46°N., long 114.60°W.), Northwest Territories, Canada, in spring 2000: A, 4 May, B, 20 May, C, 5 June, and D, 21 June. The fracturing, weakening, and shrinkage of the ice are evident, as is the complete disappearance of ice from numerous smaller lakes long before Great Slave Lake was completely ice free. Each image covers an area of 185 km by 185 km on the ground.
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Figure 22.—A, Temperature, and B, conductivity profiles in Lakes C-1 and C-2, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, May 1985, and Lake Bonney, Taylor Valley, Antarctica, January 1963 (From Shirtcliffe and Benseman, 1964). For comparative purposes, the deepest water samples at Lakes C-1 and C-2 have salinity values of 27.4 PSU (Practical Salinity Units) and 29.3 PSU, respectively. The Lake Bonney conductivity data (Shirtcliffe and Benseman published only conductivity values) are shown as 50 percent of actual values for easier comparison with the data for Lakes C-1 and C-2
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Figure23.—Ice-thickness variations since the late 1970s at four lakes in Taylor Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The 1978–1988 data are from Chinn (1993). The 1989–2004 data were provided by John Priscu, Montana State University.
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Figure 24.—RADARSAT-1 Standard Beam synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images show fracturing, shrinkage, and complete melting of the once-perennial ice on meromictic Lakes C-1 and C-2 and the perennial epishelf lake ice in Taconite Inlet (lat 82.85°N., long 78.22° W.), Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. Lake C-3 is a well-mixed, freshwater lake. A, 5 September 1997; B, 26 August 1998; C, 8 September 1999; D, 14 August 2000; E, 22 August 2001; F, 21 August 2002; G, 25 August 2003; and H, 19 August 2004. Each image covers an area of 7 km by 8.5 km on the ground.
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Figure 25.—Earth Observing System (EOS) MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) (bands 1 and 2) images of the confluence of the Lena and Olekma Rivers, Russia, during break-up in spring 2000 show, A, widespread open water in both channels, except for some ice in the Lena River upstream from the confluence on 12 May, and B, an ice jam and extensive ice in the Lena River up- and downstream from the confluence causing widespread flooding on 15 May. The city of Olekminsk is located at lat 60.4°N., long 120.4°E. Each image covers an area of 105 km by 130 km on the ground.
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Figure 26.—European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of the Kolyma River, Russia, on 12 October 1993 showing an icebreaker track in the ice between the Arctic Ocean and the city of Cherskiy (lat 68.8°N., long 161.3°E.), a straight line distance of 100 km. The insert (center right) shows an enlarged section of the river and the icebreaker track. To the west of the river lies the Kolyma Lowland and many tundra lakes covered with new ice. The full image covers an area of 100 km by 140 km on the ground. The insert covers an area of 18 km by 24 km on the ground.
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Figure 27.—A, Freeze-up and break-up records and B, ice-duration records for selected lakes and rivers in the Northern Hemisphere. The original data have been smoothed with an 11-year running average filter. Originally published by Magnuson and others (2000), the data were obtained from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colo. (See also table 1.)
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Figure 28.The Nenana Ice Classic record of break-up on the Tanana River, Alaska: A, 1917–2004; B, 1967–2004; and C, mean annual air temperature anomalies in the Arctic, 1900–2003. Break-up is shown as number of days after the vernal equinox in order to avoid bias due to leap years (Sagarin, 2001). The area in the box in A is enlarged in B. The original break-up data were obtained from the Nenana Ice Classic Web site (http://www.nenanaakiceclas-sic.com/). The break-up data and the air temperature anomaly data have each been smoothed with an 11-year running average filter. (See also table 2.)
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Figure 29.—Measured annual cumulative evaporation from Great Slave Lake for 1997, 1998, and 1999. Each curve begins at break-up and ends at freeze-up. The graph shows a longer open-water season in 1998 than in other years associated with the 1998 El Niño, which caused earlier break-up and later freeze-up.
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Figure 30.—Historical evolution of the number of lake-ice and river-ice observation sites from the Lake Ice Analysis Group (LIAG) and the Canadian Ice Database (CID) (Lenormand and others, 2002) showing a peak in the number of observation sites in the 1970s followed by a marked decline that started in the mid-1980s. The LIAG database, also known as the Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database, is available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the CID is available from the Canadian Cryospheric Information Network (CCIN). Some of the observations from the CID have been incorporated into the LIAG database.


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